Us Army Organization

l leavy artillery commands were organized largely along the same line as infantry regiments and battalions. According to an act of Congress passed in August, 186!: "Each regiment of infantry shall have one colonel, one lieutenant-colonel, one major, one adjutant (a lieutenant), one quartermaster (a lieutenant), one surgeon and one assistant surgeon, one sergeant-major, one regimental quartermaster-sergeant, one regimental commissary-sergeant, one hospital steward, two principal musicians, and twenty-four musicians for a band; and shall be composed often companies, each company to consist of one captain, one first lieutenant, one second lieutenant, one first sergeant, four sergeants, eight corporals, two musicians, one wagoner, and from sixty-four to eighty-two privates." A chaplain was also authorized.

Heavy artillery companies required more specialized men, such as blacksmiths, so these regiments were larger than infantry regiments. According to Major Frederick Shonnard, 6th New York 1 leavy Artillery. "An inl'antn regiment was comprised often companies of 100 men each, while an Artillery regiment was composed of twelve companies of 150 men each, each company being called a Battery. Such an organization could be used entirely as infantry, divided into three battalions of six hundred men each, or partly as infantry,"

The Provost Marshal-General's office sent this message, on April 20, 18(54, to each of the state governors: 'The Secretary of War has ordered that n ew regi m e n ts of heavy artillery that may be organized and filled up to the legal standard of 1,738 men, within the period of twenty days from this date, will be received and credited. If regiments are not full on or before the 10th of May the recruits will be put into other artillery or infantry organizations." At this point, the government would rather have had infantry than heavy artillery regiments.

Even so, the same basic I 86 I company organization remained. On April 15, 1868, the XVI Corps issued orders for eight heavy artillery companies to garrison Fort Pickering.

Battery No. 4, one of 15 batteries planted to the south and southeast of Vorktown for McClellan's superfluous siege, contained ten 13-inch siege mortars. (Library of Congress)

Army Artilary RegimentArmy Artillery Battery Organization
A 13-inch mortar, weighing 17,000 pounds, as shown on the pages of Frank Leslie's Illustrated News.

A 13-inch mortar battery on Morris island around the Union lines besieging Charleston.

A 13-inch mortar battery on Morris island around the Union lines besieging Charleston.

Artillery Battalion Organization

They read:

"1. Pursuant to orders from the Secretary of War (Brig. Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-Gen. U. S. Army) there will be recruited and mustered into the service of the United States eight companies Of colored men for service as heavy artillery at Fori Pickering.

"11. The recruiting, organization, and examination of recruits will be as directed by regulations.

"til. Each company will have one captain, two lieutenants, and an orderly-sergeant, who will lie white; the other noncommissioned officers will he from the colored recruits."

The following units were raised as regiments of heavy artillery for tile U.S. Army: 1st Connecticut Regiment, 2d Connecticut Regiment, Ahl's Delaware Company, 1st Indiana Regiment, 1st Louisiana Siege Artillery Regiment (African Descent), 1st Maine Regiment, Maine Garrison Artillery, 1st Massachusetts Regiment, 1st Massachusetts Battalion, 2d Massachusetts Regiment, 3d Massachusetts Regiment, 4 th Massachusetts Regiment, 130 Massachusetts Companies* (ith Michigan Regiment, 1st Minnesota Regiment, and the 1st New Hampshire Regiment.

From New York: the 2d New York Regiment, 3d New York German Battalion, 4th New York Regiment, 4th New York National Guard, 4th New York Battalion (1st Black River Artillery Battalion), 5th New York Regiment (2d Jackson Regiment), 5th New York Battalioti (2d Black River Artillery Battalion), 6th New York Regiment (Anthony Wayne Guard), (3th New York Battalion (3d Black River Artillery Battalion), 7th New York Regiment (Albany County Regiment/Seymour Guards), 7th New York Regiment (4tli Black River Artillery Battalion), 8th New York Regiment, 9th New York Regiment (2d Auburn Regiment/Cayuga and Wayne County Regiment), 10th New York Regiment (Black River Artillery/ Jefferson County Regiment), I 1 th New York Regiment. 13th New York Regiment, 12ib New York State Militia. 14th New York Regiment, 15th New York Regiment, and the 16th New York Regiment.

From other states: the 1st North Carolina Regiment (African Descent), 1st Ohio Regiment, 2d Ohio Regiment, 2d Pennsylvania Regiment (112ih Volunteers), 2d Pennsylvania Provisional Regiment, 3d Pennsylvania Regiment (152d Volunteers), 5th Pennsylvania Regiment (204th Volunteers), ├╝tli Pennsylvania Regiment (212th Volunteers), Robert's Pennsylvania Battalion, Segebarth Pennsylvania Marine Artillery Battalion, the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Company F.i men trout's Pennsylvania Militia Company, [ones' Pennsylvania Independent Company, Schooley's Pennsylvania Independent Company, Tyler's Pennsylvania Company, and Woodward's Pennsylvania Company,

Also: the 3d Rhode Island Regiment, the 5th Rhode Island Regiment, the 14th Rhode Island Regiment, 1 si Tennessee Regiment (African Descent), 2d Tennessee Regiment (African Descent), Isi Vermont Regiment, and 1st Wisconsin Regiment.

In the United States Army: Battery A, Isi Artillery; Battery C, 1st Artillery; Battery I), 1st Artillery; Battery H, 2d Artillery; Battery I, 2d Artillery; Battery K, 2d Artillery; Battery B, 3d Artillery, Battery D, 3d Artillery; Battery II, 3d Artillery; Battery D, 4l!i Artillery; Battery L, lib Artillery; Battery G, ."Hit Artillery; 1st U.S. Colored Trooops (USCT), 3d USCT, 4th USCT, 5th USCT, 6th USCT 7ih USCT, 8th USCT, 9th USCT, I Oth USCT, 11th USCT, 12th USCT, 13th USCT, and 14th USCT.

Confederate Artillery Uniforms

This 13-Inch mortar was mounted on a railway car so as to be able to be fired from different places into the Confederate lines around Petersburg. (Library of Congress)

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  • Layton
    What is the consist of an artilary battalion?
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