South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida
On 29 August 1862 Beauregard was named to command the Department of South Carolina and Georgia, which was expanded with the addition of the state of Florida on 7 October. At its strongest, in January 1864, some 38,277 officers and men were on department rolls. Until Beauregard arrived there units within the department, which w as charged with
Field grade officers pose in front of an Army of Tennessee or 'Johnston ' version of the Army of Northern Virginia battle flag carried by the 27th Texas Cavalry Regiment. The flag is very much the same as that carried by the 3rd Texas Cavalry, also a unit of Ross's Brigade which served in the Army of Tennessee until the 1H64 Tennessee campaign. (Houston Public Library)
coastal defcnce, had flown a mixture of First National and state flags.
Shortly after assuming command, in September, Beauregard issued orders for a common design for standards and colours; however, it took some time for all the units within the department to receive the new flags. For example, it was not until late April 1863 that Beauregard presented units on James Island, South Carolina, with their new battle flags—flags which were received, according to one eyewitness, with 'three cheers and a Tiger'.
The new flag was basically the Army of Northern Virginia battle flag (see Plate II2), with some basic differences. The department flag was made in only two sizes: infantry, foot artillery, and cavalry had colours four feet square, w hile light artillery batteries flew three-foot-square standards. These flags also had bunting sleeves which were blue for infantry and red for both artillery and cavalry. Finally, the stars in the St. Andrew's cross were spaced evenly, rather than bunched towards the centre star as they were on Army of Northern Virginia battle flags.
The department's flags were made by both Quartermaster Clothing Depots within its domain; and by a private contractor, Hayden & Whilden, which was located in Charleston, South Carolina, where department headquarters was located until October 1864 when its new commander, Hardee, moved it to Savannah, Georgia, in preparation for the siege of that city.
Department General Orders No. 35 dated 5 April 1865 ordered that ambulance depots be marked with a plain red flag so that they would be easily visible by wounded and stretcher bearers.
Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana
This department was created 9 May 1864 under the command of Maj. Gen. Stephen D. Lee. He was replaced in late July by Maj. Gen. Dabney H. Maury, w ho was in turn replaced by Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor, who held the command until the war's end. The department's headquarters was at
The 28th Alabama Infantry, which served in the Army of Tennessee, carried this novel battle flag. The obverse was a variation of the Army of Xorthern Virginia battle flag with a dark blue St. Andrew's cross and gold stars, while the reverse was of white silk bearing the design and lettering in gold. The fringe was also gold.
Meridian, Mississippi, and had some 35,676 officers and men on paper; only 12,000 were surrendered in May 1865.
Units within the department had flow n a mixture of national flags, flags patterned on Army of Northern Virginia battle flags, and state flags. However, shortly after the department was created a standard pattern for its battle flag was adopted and examples were made at Mobile, Alabama, and issued to units w ithin it.
The w ool bunting flags were rectangular copies of the Army of Northern Virginia battle flag made w ith a dozen white stars, three on each arm of the St. Andrew's cross and none in its centre (see Plate Gi). Second National Flags made at Mobile also lack this centre star within their cantons. The flags were made without borders and with a leading edge sew n around to make a pole sleeve. Most examples measure around 45 inches on the hoist by 52 inches. A cavalry standard some 37 inches on the hoist by 46 inches was issued to regiments within Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry corps.
flag with a dark blue St. Andrew's cross and gold stars, while the reverse was of white silk bearing the design and lettering in gold. The fringe was also gold.
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