(Dates arc given in Western, Gregorian calendar style and are 13 days ahead of Eastern or Julian calendar style. The following represents only a few of the important dates in this momentous period.)

1917 7 March Start of February devolution IS March Tsar Nicholas 11 abdicates

15 March Formation of Provisional Government

16 April Lenin returns to Russia

3 May Demonstrations in Petrograd (formally St Petersburg but the name was changed during World War One to sound less German) 18 May Provisional Government reorganizes

2 July July Offensive begins 16-18 July July Days - attempted Bolshevik coup

21 July Alexander Keren sky becomes prime minister of Provisional Government

1 August General Lavr Kornilov becomes commander-in-chief 6-14 September Kornilov attempts to restore order

6 October Leon Trotsky becomes chairman of the Petrograd Soviet

25 October Formation of the Military Revolutionary Committee

7 Novemljer October Revolution begins 13 November Kerensky's counter-revolution fails

15 November Mikhail Alexicv establishes the Volunteer Army in the Don

20 November Central Rada declares Ukrainian independence

2 December Generals Kornilov, Denikin, liomanovsky, Lukomsky and Markov escape from Bykhov and head for the Don

6 December Finland declares independence

20 December Establishment of the Cheka

22 December Peace negotiations begin at Brest-l.itovsk

1918 12January Latvia declares independence from Russia 19 January Bolsheviks shut down Constituent Assembly H February Red Army takes Kiev 9 February Ukrainian Rada makes peace with Central Powers 14 February Soviet Russia adopts the Western or Gregorian calendar 14 February Grigori Semenov raises army in Trans-Baikal region 16 February Lithuania declares independence

19 February Central Powers advance through Ukraine 22 February Volunteer Army evacuates Rostov-on-Don and begins 'lee March'

24 February Estonia declares independence

25 February Don Cossack Front collapses under General A. Kaledin

2 March Germans enter Kiev

3 March Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed

12 March liolsheviks move government and capital from Petrograd to Moscow 14 March Red Army captures Ekaterinodar

3 April German forces land in Finland

4 April British landings begin in Siberia

5 April Initial landing of the Allies at Murmansk

Petrograd 1919
The strategic railway junction at Kharkov through which Denikin's Armed Forces of South Russia advanced on Moscow in 1919. (Bullock collection)

5 April Germans take Kharkov

6 April Japanese land in Vladivostok 13 April Kornilov killed at Ekaterinodar

April liolsheviks begin crackdown on Anarchists

13 April Central Powers occupy Odessa

29 April Pavel Skoropadsky establishes the Hetmanate under German sponsorship 6 May Hon Cossacks retake Novocherkassk, the Don capital 8 May Germans enter Rostov-on-Don 11 May Petr Krasnov elected Ataman of Don Cossacks

25 May Czech Legion revolts against Bolsheviks

26 May Georgia declares independence

29-30 May Czechs take Penza and Syzran

1 June Provisional Government of Siberia established at Omsk

8 June Gzechs capture Samara, People's Government forms 3 June Allies reinforce Murmansk 23 June Czech Legion takes Ufa 14 July Anti-Rolshevik forces established at Ashkhabad and Trans-Caspian region 16 July Execution of the tsar and royal family at Ekaterinburg 21 July Socialist Revolutionary revolt at Yaroslavl crushed

25 July Czech Legion captures Ekaterinburg

2 August Anti-Bolshevik forces take control of Archangel

3 August Allies land in Archangel

3 August Americans land at Vladivostok

4 August British land at Uaku

6 August Czech and KOMUCH forces seize Kazan

14 August liritish Dunsterforce arrives in Uaku

15 August Volunteer Army takes tikaterlnodar

26 August Volunteer Army enters Novorossisk

4 September Americans arrive at Archangel

Russian Tsars Chronology
St Petersburg, the tsars' capital and scene of the Bolsheviks' first triumphs. (© Corbis)

JO September lied Army captures Kazan

2i September All Russian Provisional Government (Directory) established at Ufa

8 October Bed Army enters Samara 15 October Krasnov advances on Tsaritsyn

29-30 October Narva, Pskov fall to Red Army

11 November Armistice ending World War One signed 11 November Poland declares independence

18 November Alexander Kolchak becomes Supreme Ruler at Omsk IK November Latvia declares independence from all powers 14 December Collapse of Skoropadsky's Hetmanate 17 December French intervention in Odessa

25 December Perm falls to Kolchak

1919 3 January Bed Army takes Kharkov and Riga

6 January Kiev falls to the Reds 15 February Anton Denikin becomes commander-in-chief. Armed Forces of South Russia (AFSR) 13 March Kolchak's Whites begin spring offensive

5 April Hritish end intervention in the Trans-Caspian 8 April French end intervention in Odessa

19 May AFSB begins spring offensive 23 May German 'iron Division' and Whites take Riga

27 June Denikin captures Kharkov 2 July Wrangel takes Tsaritsyn 15 July Ashkhabad falls to the Beds 21 July Red Army takes Perm

25 July Red Army enters Chelyabinsk

19 August Hritish evacuate liaku and Azerbaijan

23 August AFSR takes Odessa 31 August AFSR takes Kiev

20 September AFSR takes Kursk

26 September Nestor Makhno defeats Whites at Peregonovka

27 September Allies evacuate Archangel

28 September Northwestern Army advances on Petrogiad

30 September Allies evacuate Archangel

6 October Don Army takes Voronezh 12 October Allies evacuate Murmansk 14 October AFSR takes Orel

24 October Orel falls to the Reds, Cossacks abandon Voronezh 9 November Makhno captures EkaterinoslaV

11 November Cossacks defeated at Kastornaya

14 November Omsk falls to the Reds

12 December Kharkov falls to the Reds

16 December Kiev falls to the Reds 30 December Ekaterinoslav falls to the Reds

1920 3 January Tsaritsyn falls to the Reds 4 January Kolchak abdicates 5-8 January Taganrog, Novocherkassk and Rostov-on-Don fall to the Reds

2 February Estonia and Bolsheviks sign peace treaty

7 February Kolchak executed in Irkutsk

7 February Odessa falls to the Reds 19 February White Northern Government falls, Archangel

17 March Red Army takes Ekaterinodar

27 March Reds enter Novorossisk 1 April Americans evacuate Siberia 4 April Denikin resigns, Wrangel assumes command

Wrangels Evacuation
The cruiser Aurora, whose guns heralded the arrival of Bolshevism. (Sovietsky Kudoshnik, 1967)

6 April Far Eastern Republic established

24 April R us so-Polish War begins 27 April Red Army takes Azerbaijan 6 May Kiev falls to Poland

6 June Wrangel advances into the Tauride

12 June Kiev falls to the Reds

11 July Minsk falls to the Reds 14 July Vilna falls to the Reds

17 August Poland counter-attacks 19 August Antonov Rebellion begins in Tambov region

12 October Russo-Polish armistice

25 October Red offensive against Wrangel on the Dnieper Line

2 November Wrangel defends Crimea 11 November I'crekop defences breached

14 November Wrangel evacuates Crimea

25 November Reds begin liquidation of the Makhnovshchma December Red Army occupies Armenia

1921 1921-23 Famine rages in Ukraine, Armenia, in the Crimea and along the Volga

1921-22 White resistance continues in Russian Far East and in parts of Central Asia

25 February Bolsheviks establish power in Georgia

2-18 March Kronstadt Rebellion crushed by the Red Army

2 April Bolsheviks establish power in


August Makhnovshchma crushed by the Red Army

15 September Execution of Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, the 'Mad Baron'

1922 Spring Antonov Rebellion crushed by the Red Army

25 October Japan evacuates Vladivostok

19 November Bolsheviks annex the Far Eastern Republic

Vladivostok Russia 1920

HoBOpocciflcKt - Novorossisk

OOmitt BUST).

1923 January-March l.ieiitenarit-Genera] Pepeliev invades Yakutsk with the Siberian Volunteer Corps and is defeated Pepelyaev captured 17 June

The southern White port and Allied supply depot of Novorossisk on the Black Sea. From 1919, the British used this port to supply their military mission training Denikin's Whites in the arts of logistics, aircraft handling, tank-driving and gunnery

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