The Ukraine

The UHA had ceased to exisl by April 1920. In order to continue the struggle against the

Vasily Konstantinovich Blyukhei: In the opening months of 1918, he commanded the South Urals Partisan Army, a force of 10,000 that carried a red banner with white skull and crassbones. In these days, Blyukher fought against Ataman Dutov's Cossacks and according to Soviet hagiography, wore a 'black mask'. He became the first recipient of the Order of the Red Banner after his forces broke through enemy lines near Samara in September 1918. He went on to play an instrumental part in the defeat of Kolchak's Siberians in 1919-20 and a critical role in breaching the White Army's defences at Perekop, Crimea in 1920. (Photo card, Planeta, 1972)

Bolsheviks and establish the UNR on Ukrainian soil, Petlyura concluded an alliance with Poland in April. In exchange for military assistance, the UNR accepted the loss of Galicia. Directory troops numbering 23,000 advanced with the Poles in the offensive that took Kiev on 5 July 1920 during the Russo-Polish War. However, the ensuing Red counter-attack eliminated all gains, and the armistice in October between Poland and the Bolsheviks required the internment of the UNR army.

In March 1921 the Treaty of Riga divided the Ukraine between the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and Poland. The last of the Directory's troops conducted partisan raids into the Ukraine in November, but these bands were surrounded and destroyed by Red cavalry.

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