Companies also had a swallow-tailed guidon, by 1861 Regulations divided in half, red over white. On the red, 'U.S.' in white, and on the white the company letter in red. In 1863, however, the guidon was changed to a Stars and Stripes in the same swallow-tailed style. This was again changed in 1865 back to the original style. The guidons were 3 feet 5 inches from the end of the tails to the pole, 15 inches from the centre of the fork, and 2 feet 3 inches on the pole, which was again 9 foot.
Regimental standard bearers were usually Sergeants, guidon bearers Privates. The butt of the lance was carried in a socket on a special right stirrup. Dismounted, the lance was carried in the bend of the right arm, vertically, with the butt approximately 1 foot from the ground. The flag bearer followed the unit commander unless otherwise ordered. The lance head was heart shaped and plain.
Standards and guidons had a real purpose during the Civil War, acting as rallying and leading points in the confusion of battle.
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