Southern Aristocrat

Caroline Deslonde was the daughter of an influential Creole plantation owner in Louisiana.

Shortly before the Civil War began, she married Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, one of the Confederacy's first hero-generals. Caroline was a member of what was known as the "Southern Aristocracy," the wealthy class of Southerners that had a strong influence on politics and society. Many working-class Confederates disliked these people and blamed them for the war and its hardships. After the conflict, the Southern Aristocracy was less prosperous, but it still remained influential in society and government.

General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

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War on the water

The navies of the North and South played big parts in the strategies of Union and Confederate commanders. President Lincoln's sailors blocked Southern seaports and fought Confederates on the rivers. President Davis's navy commissioned privateers, vessels that attacked Union merchant ships all over the world and stole their cargoes. Both warring navies used America's lakes, bayous, and streams to transport soldiers to battlefields and forts, and fought to keep their opponents off the nation's waterways. The navies also changed the technology of warfare. The South produced the world's first modern ironclad warship. Built from the burned remains of the U.S. Navy vessel Merrimac, Confederates named it the CSS Virginia. Union inventor John Ericsson built an ironclad ship to fight it. His vessel was named the Monitor. Many other ironclads were made after that and fought battles along America's coasts and rivers. To defend against these and other vessels, Southern engineers perfected floating explosive mines. These devices threatened any ship entering Confederate waters.

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