European Observers

Civil War photographers liked to pose important visitors for pictures. Here are three titled French military men: from the left, the Duc de Chartes, the Prince de Joinville, and the Comte de Paris. They are all members of the same French titled family, and served with Union Major General George McClellan's staff in 1862.

Muzzle-loading rifle

TWO GERMAN BROTHERS The Midwest produced many regiments made up of men from Germany and Scandinavia. These two soldiers from Illinois, George and Herman Grothe, were both born in Germany.

George And Herman GrotheArmee Sudiste

A CHIEF AND A GENERAL Stand Watie was a chief of the Cherokee tribe in what is today Oklahoma. He formed a brigade of Native Americans to fight for the South and was made a brigadier general. His troops fought at the battles of Wilson's Creek in Missouri and Pea Ridge in Arkansas. In June, 1865, Watie was the last Confederate general to surrender his troops.

Side knife

Women at war

In the 1860s, around the globe, laws and customs prohibited women from taking part in war. But in America there was a different attitude. For generations, women had endured the dangers of the frontier. They had supported their men in wars against the British, Mexicans, and Native Americans. In those conflicts, most soldiers were volunteers. When they went off to battle, they left the women behind to look after farms, businesses, and communities. At those times, women were often called on to bear the burden of "men's work" as well as the work traditionally considered their own. They proved they were tough. Men still did not want women to face flying bullets and cannon shot in the Civil War, but they did accept them taking part in war off the battlefield. Though their numbers were small, women played a role in support work in Union and Confederate government departments. some were spies. While most army nurses were men, women were allowed to serve as hospital volunteers. Regiments of upper-class soldiers sometimes supported a vivandière, a uniformed female mascot who marched with the troops and performed camp chores. In the North, many women belonged PK A confederate angel to the Sanitary Commission.

Phoebe Pember is remembered for J

her selfless work in Confederate This was an organization aimy hosMitais™d ^hmond, that traveled to the field

Virginia. Mrs. Pember was a South

Carolina widow. During the war, with supplies for she kept a joumal of her hospital soldier relief experiences. Published after the conflict ended, it criticized the

Southern government's administration and operation of its hospitals.

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