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war. In the weeks that followed, Union forces managed to push Jackson's militia toward the southwestern part of Missouri, capturing in the process the state capital at Jefferson City on 15 June. Lyon and Colonel Franz Sigel, a prominent German-American ieader, pursued with about 5,500 men and occupied the town of Springfield. But Lyon's soldiers were at the end of a weak supply line with no promise of reinforcements. Soon the 8,000 secessionist militia led by Major-General Sterling Price were joined by 5,000 Confederate troops under Major-General Benjamin McCulloch. Lyon nevertheless refused to retreat and, learning

Once the secessionists left St Louis, the/ headed west along the Missouri River until the Union forces caught up with them and forced them into the southern part of the state near Springfield. On 10 August 1861, Union forces under Nathaniel Lyon fought the Confederates under Sterling Price and Benjamin McCulloch.

that the Rebels would soon launch an offensive, decided to attack first.

On 10 August the Union forces struck the Southerners at Wilson's Creek or Oak Hills, 10 miles (16km) south of Springfield. Lyon's attack was risky, but came close to success. The Rebel troops were poorly trained and equipped, and Lyon managed to achieve surprise with a daring two-pronged attack.

A confused savage battle ensued along the banks of Wilson's Creek. Lyon's men managed to hold their ground, in the face of nearly three-to-one odds, until Lyon was fatally wounded. The combination of Lyon's death and depleted ammunition forced the Federals to retreat. Eventually they fell back over 100 miles (160km> to Rolla, a railroad town that linked them to St Louis.

Union and Confederate forces both suffered roughly 1,300 casualties in this battle. In the weeks that followed, Confederates marched into the Missouri River valley, and they captured Lexington, Missouri, in mid-September. Thus, for a few months. Price's militia controlled half the state. The Confederate commander, however, soon discovered that he lacked the manpower to hold such a vast region, and in October he withdrew again to the southwest corner of Missouri. Although they had lost the key battle, the Federals ironically managed to hold on to Missouri, although their grip was tenuous and remained so until the next year. Throughout the war. Missouri was the battleground for continual and vicious guerrilla warfare.

Union advances in Kentucky

Meanwhile, in Kentucky, while both presidents attempted to steer armies around the state, secessionist Governor Beriah Magoffin also repudiated Lincoln's request for troops. Still, he allowed the Unionist legislature to exercise a degree of power throughout the summer. Nonetheless, recruiting for both sides went on in the state until Confederate fears over possible Union occupation of the region along the Mississippi River forced the Confederates to seize Columbus, Kentucky. Major-General Leoniclas Polk was ordered to seize the strategic town, positioned on a high bluff overlooking the Mississippi River. Although he was prompted to strike because of the town's military importance, the political consequences were monumental. Declaring that the Confederacy had invaded the

Civil War Maps Camps Rolla

George B McClellan commander of the Army of the Potomac and general-m-chief of the Union army from S November 1861 to II March 1861 was an advocate of fightmg a limited war. He impressed this attitude on the commanders whom he appointed to commands in the west, including Don Carlos Buell and Henry Wager HaJleck. (Ann Ronan Picture Library1)

George B McClellan commander of the Army of the Potomac and general-m-chief of the Union army from S November 1861 to II March 1861 was an advocate of fightmg a limited war. He impressed this attitude on the commanders whom he appointed to commands in the west, including Don Carlos Buell and Henry Wager HaJleck. (Ann Ronan Picture Library1)

Bluegrass state, Kentucky's Union authorities pledged their support for the Union and forced Magoffin to resign. Federal forces under Major-General Ulysses S. Grant immediately occupied Paducah, Kentucky, near the mouth of the Tennessee River and connected to Columbus by railroad. Although the Union held only a thin strip of Kentucky's border, its strategic significance far outweighed its small size.

As in Missouri. Union and Confederate authorities moved quickly to shore up strategic points in the state. Federal forces immediately took Louisville, the largest city, and Frankfurt, the Kentucky capital. Major-General Robert Anderson commanded Louisville until he was replaced in September by Major-General William T. Sherman. As Union politicians contemplated how best to occupy the region they now held militarily, significant changes were occurring in military personnel.

In early November. Major-General George B. McClellan replaced General Winfield Scott

Henry Halleck was known in the regular army before the Gvil War as Old Brains' for his impressive intellect. McClellan appointed him commander of the Department of Missouri in November 361 and his leadership in the western campaigns so impressed Lincoln that he became the President's chief of staff in July 1862. (Massachusetts Commander^ Military Order of the Loyal Legion and the US Armv Military History Institute/

A close prewar fnend of McClellan. who shared his superior's :,-r\ited-war beliefs. Don Carlos Buell became commander of the Department of Ohio and played an instrumental role in bringing about success r. the v*est (Ann Ronan Picture bbrary)

Henry Halleck was known in the regular army before the Gvil War as Old Brains' for his impressive intellect. McClellan appointed him commander of the Department of Missouri in November 361 and his leadership in the western campaigns so impressed Lincoln that he became the President's chief of staff in July 1862. (Massachusetts Commander^ Military Order of the Loyal Legion and the US Armv Military History Institute/

as general-in-chief of the Union armies. McClellan was a youthful, self-absorbed, but vigorous and intelligent commander who shared the President's political and strategic vision of a limited war for limited goals. He moved quickly to stabilize the political and military situation in the west. He appointed like-minded commanders for the war's most important commands.

McClellan replaced John C. Fremont, who had issued an unauthorized emancipation proclamation in Missouri, with Major-General Henry Halleck. At 46. Halleck, a West Point graduate, had already demonstrated brilliance as a writer of military theory. When the war broke out. he was perhaps the most sought-after Union commander. He would be sent to St Louis to bring some semblance of order to the chaos. As a result of the reorganization of military departments in the west, Halleck

A close prewar fnend of McClellan. who shared his superior's :,-r\ited-war beliefs. Don Carlos Buell became commander of the Department of Ohio and played an instrumental role in bringing about success r. the v*est (Ann Ronan Picture bbrary)

would be responsible for the area that stretched westward from the Cumberland River through Missouri.

Major-General Don Carlos Buell commanded the newly organized Department of the Ohio, which included the region stretching from the Appalachian Mountains to the Cumberland River, but included all of Kentucky. Since his graduation from West Point in 1841. Buell was one of the few regular army officers in the western command and was a staunch advocate of limited war. He had acquired eight slaves through his prewar marriage and was a conservative Democrat, like McClellan and Halleck. McClellan thought that sending him to Kentucky might placate Kentuckians. Although its command in the west was divided, the Union had twice the number of troops as the Confederates with which to conduct affairs in the respective departments, which stretched some 500 miles (800kmi.

The Confederates meanwhile sought to unify tin.- command of the western region

Ir, 1861. Albert Sidney Johnston was regarded as one of the nation's finest military commanders, but his Civil War career was one of the great disappointments of the Confederacy. He was wounded at the Battle of Shiloh and bled to death while his staff physician was attending to wounded Southern and Northern soldiers. (Ann Ronan Picture Library)

Ir, 1861. Albert Sidney Johnston was regarded as one of the nation's finest military commanders, but his Civil War career was one of the great disappointments of the Confederacy. He was wounded at the Battle of Shiloh and bled to death while his staff physician was attending to wounded Southern and Northern soldiers. (Ann Ronan Picture Library)

under the leadership of Major-General Albert Sidney Johnston. A charismatic Texan, with outstanding credentials, having graduated from West Point eighth in his class and having served in the Black Hawk War, the Mexican War, and the Mormon War of 1858, Johnston was an excellent choice. Moreover, he was a good friend of President Davis. On his shoulders would fall the responsibility of defending the 500-mile (800km) line that stretched from the Appalachians to the Ozarks in the west across the Mississippi river. He constructed a defensive cordon that ran from Columbus on the Mississippi to Cumberland Gap in the Appalachians.

Besides the daunting task of defending such a vast line, Johnston was also strapped with the liability of having a core of subordinates whose authority exceeded their abilities. Polk, the commander of the western stronghold at Columbus, was also a West Point graduate, but left the military to become an Episcopal Bishop before the war.

On the extreme of the Confederate defensive line was Brigadier-General Felix Zollicoffer. a prewar journalist who advanced his Southern forces into eastern Kentucky. To block a Union invasion from Louisville, the Confederates occupied Bowling Green in the center of the state and command of the forces there went to Simon Bolivar Buckner. To assist in holding the front, Johnston had two political generals, Gideon Pillow and John B. Floyd, who proved wholly incompetent as military commanders.

Trying to defend a huge expanse of territory with inept leadership, Johnston's task was further handicapped by a lack of resources - a problem that would plague the Confederacy Ihroughout the war. Fast of the Mississippi River, Johnston could concentrate at any one place only about 45,000 men, and west of the river, perhaps 15,000 soldiers. Still, once they occupied Kentucky, the Confederates enjoyed excellent railroad connections that gave them the distinct advantage of interior lines. They could reinforce any one region quickly by moving troops through these interior lines and a maze of tiny installations. To buoy this strength, Johnston's troops had built two forts on the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers just below the Kentucky-Tennessee line. Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River were designed to inhibit Federal navigation on these rivers.

While Halleck and Buell considered the best avenue by which to penetrate the South, Grant decided to head down the Mississippi River from Cairo, Illinois. On 7 November, some 3,000 troops were ferried downriver to Belmont, Missouri, opposite the bluffs of Columbus, Kentucky. Although Grant's troops moved swiftly to capture the tiny river hamlet, driving the defenders away, General Polk sent reinforcements across the river and soon forced Grant's troops to retreat. Aside from the casualties, which cost Confederates and Federals about 600 men each, Grant came to appreciate the strength of Columbus and the viability of using the Mississippi as an avenue of invasion south. Another route would have to open up.

Images Governor Beriah Magoffin

The campaign in Kentucky and Tennessee, 1861-62

As winter approached, the prospects of campaigning were dismal and the difficulty of moving men in the winter brought the Federal offensive to a halt. Both Union and Confederate armies went into winter quarters expecting little military activity, but commanders began to exploit the natural advantages afforded them by the rivers. In the months that followed, the Union's edge on the water helped it recover from the defeat at First Bull Run, Wilson's Creek, and Belmont. Union commanders pondered the best avenues of invasion. They could move down the Mississippi River against Columbus, which had proven to be impregnable; they could move by railroad from Louisville to Bowling Green into central Kentucky, which the Confederates could easily stall: or they could move up either the Tennessee or Cumberland River or both toward the river forts.

Whatever the case, the western commanders would first have to agree on the same avenue and, secondly, be willing to commit significant numbers of troops to hold on to supply areas as they moved south, which would reduce the number of troops for combat. A seemingly logical solution at the time, the divided departments would come to plague Union operations in the west, as neither Halleck nor Buell, cautious by nature and sensitive about administering their departments, could agree on the same route of invasion. Thus, the better part of the winter of 1861-62 was spent campaigning with a map. They convinced themselves that because the Confederates had the advantage of interior lines, any Union assault would have a distinct disadvantage. Consequently, an impatient Northern public and a frustrated president, tired of the inactivity, demanded an end to procrastination and the beginning of some movement in the west.

It was the subordinates of Halleck and Buell who, disheartened by the inactivity of camp life, convinced their superiors to allow them to take the initiative. The war began to

Commodore Andrew Foote
Commodore Andrew foote was wounded by splinters of wood in his foot while on deck of the USS Si Louis. Though somewhat incapacitated, he took part in the attack on island No. 10 in Apnl His injury forced him to shore duty and in June he was transferred to Washington ' Ann Ronan Picture Library >

move in the west in early January when Halleck ordered Grant to send a small expeditionary force up the Tennessee River to test the defenses at Fort Henry. This diversionary trip, Halleck thought, might also force Johnston to consider his options as to where he might concentrate his force.

At the other end of the Confederate defensive line, Major-Generals George B. Crittenden and George H. Thomas engaged and defeated Confederate forces under Brigadier-General Felix Zollicoffer at the Battle of Mill Springs or Logan's Cross Roads, Kentucky. The battle, on 19 January 1862, revealed the weakness in Johnston's line and advanced the Union cause in the eastern portion of the Bluegrass state and in eastern Tennessee.

Meanwhile, Grant had finally convinced Halleck that Fort Henry could easily be taken. In early February about 15,000 troops boarded transports and steamed up the Tennessee. To cooperate with the Union troops, Grant ordered a flotilla of gunboats commanded by Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote to accompany the expedition. On 6 February, while Grant disembarked his troops, the flotilla continued upriver and at 11.00 am opened lire on the fort. Realizing that the Union forces were closing in by land and river. Brigadier-General l.loyd Tilghman decided to send the 2,500-man garrison out of the fort to Fort Donelson some 12 miles (19km) east. The winter rains had forced the Tennessee out of its banks and the fort had succumbed to nearly 6 feet (2m) of water. Within three hours, the gunboats had reduced the fort and forced Tilghman to surrender before Grant's infantrymen even arrived on the scene. 'Fort Henry is ours,' read the news as it made its way east. "The flag of the Union is re-established on the soil of Tennessee,' asserted Halleck.

The Federals had correctly pinpointed the weakness in the Confederate defensive line: the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers. Thinking that the Confederates would reinforce Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River, Grant destroyed the railroad over the Tennessee, sent gunboats south toward northern Alabama, and prepared to move eastward toward the river stronghold. Brigadier-General John B. Floyd commanded the Confederates at Fort Donelson, and Johnston decided to strengthen his line by sending some reinforcements, withdrawing part of the garrison at Columbus and abandoning Bowling Green. Confederate authorities had faced the crucial dilemma that would plague them for the rest of the war: how and where to defend the several-hundred-mile line with insufficient forces at their disposal.

Although reinforcing the fort seemed the strategic thing to do, it ultimately proved to be a colossal mistake. On 13 February. Grant's army of 23,000 men had made it to Fort Donelson and encircled it. The following day, Foote's gunboats arrived and began shelling the fort from the river, expecting to force its surrender. After several

Ulysses S. Gram seized Fort Donelson and with it considerable fame When ie .vas asked for terms after defeating a Confederate breakout attempt, his reply earned him the nickname 'Unconditional Surrender Grant. (Ann Ronan Picture Library I

hours of heavy shelling, however, the fort's well-positioned artillery forced the gunboats to retire. The cold and blustery day ended and the two disheartened armies prepared to do battle the next day. During the night, the Confederate command, convinced that Grant had completely invested the fort by now. determined to attempt a breakout and head south. The next day, 15 February, General Pillow, aided by some of General Buckner's men, broke through the Federal line after a brutal fight. When nothing was done to break the entire army out of the fort, Floyd ordered his army to return to their fortifications.

That evening the Confederates held a council of war and determined to surrender. Floyd and Pillow abdicated their responsibility as the highest-ranking commanders and left the job to General Buckner. a prewar friend of Grant's. When Buckner requested terms of surrender on 16 February, Grant replied. 'No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.' The words that forever immortalized him as 'Unconditional Surrender' Grant gave the Union its first real victory of the entire war.

Strategically, the loss of the river forts was catastrophic to the Confederacy, but equally-significant was the fact that Grant also captured the reinforcements sent to support the garrison. Some 12,500 soldiers and 40 guns were surrendered. The next day, the Northern press printed a sensational story of the Donelson campaign, made Grant an unsuspecting hero, but gave Halleck credit for planning the entire invasion. Frustrated by the news that 'All was quiet along the Potomac,' all winter, Lincoln was elated by the news along the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers and instantly rewarded the nation's new hero with a promotion to major-general of volunteers.

The Union invasion along the rivers forced the Confederates to retreat south all the way to the Tennessee-Mississippi and Alabama border. Northern gunboats now threatened Southern river towns as far south as Clarksville and Nashville. Columbus, a Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi, also succumbed to the Federals, as did a significant portion of Middle Tennessee. Tennessee Governor Isham Harris prepared to abandon Nashville and move the government with him to Memphis. Significantly, the rivers, the great market highways that had provided a regional unity at harvest times, had now become the axis of military invasion and the great weakness of the Confederacy during the winter.

On the heels of the defeats in the west, there was a somber mood in Richmond on 22 February, the day Jefferson Davis was inaugurated ['resident of the Confederacy. As the rain poured, the Confederate President claimed that 'The tyranny of the unbridled majority, the most odious and least responsible form of despotism, has denied us both the right and the remedy. Therefore we are in arms to renew such sacrifices as our fathers made to the holy cause of constitutional liberty.' While he was speaking, the citizens and soldiers of Nashville were evacuating the city. By the 25th, the Tennessee capital had surrendered to Union commander Don Carlos Buell. Wanting to move quickly to restore civilian government to the occupied region, Lincoln had named Andrew Johnson military governor of the state.

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Confederate Commander Simon Bolivar Buckner was a prewar friend of Grant and had loaned him money. When John B Fioyd and Gideon Pillow abdicated responsibility for surrendering Fort Doneison. Buckner yielded to circumstances and accepted Grant's unfriendly terms of Unconditional Surrender' (Ann Ronan Picture Library)

Confederate Commander Simon Bolivar Buckner was a prewar friend of Grant and had loaned him money. When John B Fioyd and Gideon Pillow abdicated responsibility for surrendering Fort Doneison. Buckner yielded to circumstances and accepted Grant's unfriendly terms of Unconditional Surrender' (Ann Ronan Picture Library)

West of the Mississippi River, Major-General John Pope assumed command of the Army of the Mississippi at Commerce, Missouri. He ordered his troops to move against New Madrid, Missouri, in an attempt to dislodge the Confederate stronghold at Island No. 10 near the Kentucky-Tennessee border. By the time the Confederates had evacuated Columbus, Kentucky, Federal troops under Brigadier-General Samuel R. Curtis had pushed the Confederates under Major-General Sterling Price south out of Missouri and into the northwestern portion of Arkansas. At Fayetteville, Confederate General Earl Van Dorn joined Price in an

The St Lows was one of the earliest ironclad gunooats constructed. It saw action agamst Confederate batteries at Columbus, Kentucky, Fort Henry. Fort Doneison. and Memphis. In October 1362. its name changed to tharon ae Kalb and it participated m nver anion agamst Vicksburg m 1862-63. A Confederate torpedo sank the ironclad on 12 July 1863, in the Yazoo River (Ann Ronan Picture Library)

Known as the 'Hero of Fort Sumter Pierre Gustav Beauregard was second in command to Albert Sidney Johnston, who commanded the Army of Mississippi. After Johnston was killed at the Battle of Sniloh

6-7 April 1862. Beauregard assumed command of the army, but he was relieved by Jefferson Davis shortly after (Ann Rcnan Picture Library )

Known as the 'Hero of Fort Sumter Pierre Gustav Beauregard was second in command to Albert Sidney Johnston, who commanded the Army of Mississippi. After Johnston was killed at the Battle of Sniloh

6-7 April 1862. Beauregard assumed command of the army, but he was relieved by Jefferson Davis shortly after (Ann Rcnan Picture Library )

effort to stop the Federal advance, and on

7-8 March they counterattacked at the Battle of Pea Ridge. The Union victory allowed Halleck to concentrate his energies east of the Mississippi.

Having assumed command of the entire west, Halleck ordered his armies south to occupy Corinth, Mississippi, an important railroad junction on the Memphis and Charleston, or the 'Vertebrae of the Confederacy,' as the Confederate Secretary of War. Leroy P. Walker, characterized it. The Mobile and Ohio line bisected the Memphis and Charleston at Corinth, and Halleck came to believe that after Richmond, occupation of this tiny railway junction might bring the rebellion to a close.

Halleck ordered Grant to Savannah, Tennessee, to wait for Buell to reinforce him before heading south. Confident that the Confederates would not attack. Grant assembled his army at Pittsburg Landing, a well-known landing for river transports. It was about 25 miles (4ukm) north of Corinth, and above the river bluffs the land was relatively flat, which made the landing a suitable choice to land a large number of troops. Still, it was on the west side of the Tennessee River and Halleck had ordered Grant to await reinforcements from Buell's army before heading south toward Corinth. Buell had departed Nashville with 36,000 men and was expected to meet up with Grant before lit- crossed his army over the river.

The Battle of Shiloh

After a bleak winter that had proved tremendously unsettling to the Southern cause, spring 1862 brought hope that the Confederates in the west might redeem their losses. Johnston concentrated his defeated forces near Corinth, Mississippi, for an offensive into Tennessee. He had pleaded all winter for reinforcements, but none were forthcoming until March, when he was able to muster some 40,000 troops to engage the enemy. Realizing that the federals possessed superior numerical strength, the Confederates would have to pull off a stunning surprise and run Grant's army into the river before Buell arrived if they were to be successful. The concentration of forces brought together a colorful group of commanders, including Major-Generals Braxton Bragg and Pierre G. T. Beauregard, the hero of the Battle of First Bull Run. Johnston assumed overall command.

In Hebrew. Shiloh translates as 'Place of Peace' It is an iromc name given to a church near Pittsburg Landing.Tennessee, the scene of the most fiercely contested battle of the war m the Western Theater Shiloh chunch w;¡s located >n the middle of the Battle of Shiloh. It proved the nspiration for the noted author Herman Melville to compose an elegiac memorial to those who penshed beside the humble country church. In 'Shilon: A Requiem.' Melville attempted with poetic words to return Shiloh church to the quiet 'efuge H had once been. (Harper's Weeklv)

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100 Bowling Tips

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