The many sieges and fortifications involved in the Civil Wars were often organized by professional engineers, including a number of continentals iikc Manchester's Rosworm. Although pioneers had been recruited before ■ in 1590 there were supposed to be 20 armed pioneers per too soldiers, and in Norfolk in 1640 Lieutenant -Colonel James Calthorp w as directed to muster his company with to pioneers per 100 men with sufficient tools and two carts), pioneer duties were regarded as below the dignity ofa soldier and thus the task of impressed civilians or defaulters. The Earl of Northumberland's ordinances of war f 1640) noted that if a regiment broke before coming to grips with the enemy it was to 'serve for pi oners and scavengers, till a worthy exploit take off the blot', as were soldiers who lost their equipment *by negligence or lewdness, by dice or cards""1. Some pioneers were, however, rated sufficiently highly to be classed as soldiers, such as those of the Eastern Association who doubled as the firelock guard for the artillery . Soldiers could be detailed as labourers, or civilians impressed, the latter practice unpopular as witness the instruction that each too pioneers should have a clerk to call the roll every morning to discover those 'sick, deade. or ronne awaie1*®. Civilians were compelled to assist in the fortification of their towns i under a fine of is, at Oxford, for example), even including 'the ordinary sort of women'100 who worked on the defences of Worcester. Engineering tools were comprehensive, whether impressed from civil authorities or bought; the New Model purchased some 3,000 spades and 1,900 pickaxes of various types in 1645. Ward's Animadversions of Warre recommended such loots should 'have the marke of the gallowse set on them, in token of deathe to them that steale them.,.',01.
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