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Organizatintli weaponry and tactics of the Civil Wars were interrelated, and although numerous specific examples are quoted below it should he noted that the following general statements were not universally true and that exceptions existed. Each of the 'arms' of an army will be covered in order. beginning with the foot or infantry.

Although hand-to-hand combat was still a feature of seventeenth-century warfare, the 'missile' element of infantry lighting was increasing steadily, the longbow having been replaced by increasingly efficient firearms, for. as Daniel Lupton wrote, pikemen could 'only receive the messengers of death but Musquetierscan send them"1. But as musketeers could not adequately defend themselves against a cavalry charge, men armed with

Regiment of toot arrayed for battle: Ramborough's Regiment (from Springe's plan of Naseby)

Organization. Equipment and Tactics

Pikeman Uniform
Pikeman's helmet and corselet, the latter bearing armourers' marks of James I {Wallis 6 Wallis)

pikes remained a necessity For action in the open field, though the proportion of musketeers to pikemen was increasing steadily, until some regiments were fielded without any pikemen, though these were very much the exception.

The pikeman par excellence was equipped with a considerable weight of armour to protect himself, including a helmet, breast- and backplates. tassets thigh guards suspended from the breastplate) and a gorget (an iron collar), though the two latter items declined in use during the Civil Wars as being too cumbersome for their worth; possibly only the L.ondon trained bands wore complete 'corselets' or pike armour in any quantity. Markham described the complete ensemble:

... pikemen shall have good combe-caps for iheir heads. well lined with quilted caps, curaces ■* for their bodies of nimble and good mould, being high pike proof; large and well compact gordgetts for ¡heir neckes, fayre and close joyncJ laches, to arm to the mid-thigh; as for the pouldron or the t'antbracc, they may be spared, because they are but cumbersome. All this armour is to be russet, sanguine, or blaeke colour, than white or milled, for it wilt keepe the longer from rust.1

Under the corselet could be worn the ubiquitous 'huff-coat", originally a thick jacket of buffalo hide worn for riding and war which became almost de rigueur for gentlemen in their everyday wear and a universal protection for soldiers, the hide sufficiently thick to turn a sword blow. The total cost of a pikeman's corselet, excluding buff-coat, was established by Charles I in 1632:*

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