Notes

1 Quoted (iroK, p .tfi/iurv Annyviaa, rttptnine J Hiiuwy vf tht Enxhik Army, anh A Trtanu im Aruirrtt Armour jitJ iLuntlon. rstoi vol. It, p. J35

2 Quoted iW, p 136

j Ciuw, ! .Militant ImtTitciivta fvt tht Citmllrw Cimbniiirc, 1637 pp. 2K~9

4 Mirklum. SvuUhti Atrnirmt. weCnwe. vol l.pp toS fl j CtirMidun VII, 10S

6 Duke Ni ■! will /YiirtrmuniAip. pub in French 1658. Engliih miuliiian 166?; Kt I vlJen. Mji C) Hi*tut jnJ Saddlery London. 1965 pp 117-10

and in 1670 Sir James T urner bemoaned that 'we see them even' where naked'® and advocated a return not only to classic pike armour but even to iron arm guards (the pauldrons and vambraces mentioned by Markham i, for even if the armour were not proof against pistol balls, 'yet it encourages them who wear it General

Mo nek, whose Observatwm refer to the Civil War era, recommended that a pikeman wear a buff glove on the left hand and a buff-leather girdle, eight inches 120 centimetres) wide, hooked to the coat and protecting the lower body, which 'I am well assured ... will be much safer, and much more serviceable, and easier for a Pikeman to wear than laces' (tassetsi*. though it is uncertain whether buff girdles ever existed or whether they w ere only Monck's idea. The ptkeman's arms comprised 'a good stiff Tuck [sword] not very long, with a Belt ... if you arm your men with Swords, half the Swords you have in your Army amongst the common men, will upon the firsi March you make be broken with the cutting of Boughs'*. ('Swords' above presumably refers to long-bladed rapiers, the 'Tuck' being a shorter-bladed, more robust weapon. The pike itself was an iron-headed spear mounted upon an ash shaft between 15 and 18 feet >4.A to 5.5 metres) long, 'strong, straight, yet nimble'10 which in 1632 cost":

The Ma 0c ii vi

The head i viii

Sockct and colouring o iiii

Summc iiii vi

The New Model In 1645 paid between 3s. iod.and4s. 2d, each for 16-foot (4,9-metre) pikes. Even within the same regiment pike lenglhs might differ. Turner noting that 'few exceed fifteen (feetl... many base Soldiers will cut some off the length of that'". Orrery's Treatise on the Art of War recommends 16-J-foot (five-metre i pikes with seasoned ash shafts, lozenge heads and iron cheek-pieces four feet (1,2 metres) long, to prevent the heads from being lopped off Edward 13avis added that pikes

Organization. Kquipmknt as» Tactics should have fabric '(trips' and 'at the point and middesi trimmed with handsome tassels ... to defend the souldiers body from water, which in rainc doth runne down alongst the wood'13. These trimmings were common; in 1587-8, for example, Norwich bought five yards (4.6 metres; of 'mockadoe' fan inferior wool] to trim their town pikes, and spent a further £3 on long blue and white fringes. Daggers were recommended in the early years of the century for such obscure reasons as executing prisoners and digging latrine holes!)14 but were noi popular; neither were the small, round shields or 'targets,* despite the aticmpt by Prince Maurice of Orange to reintroduce them1*, though *'Target tiers' arc mentioned in the Artillery Company in 1638'* and one is shown in a statuette on the staircase at Cromwell House, Highgate, perhaps dating from 1646. If used ai all, targets were probably limited to the bodyguards of senior officers and perhaps colour bearers. Other pole arms included ihe medieval 'brownbilP, which even in the 1590s was advocated for use together with pike-men'1, but which was only issued when other weapons were unavailable, though it was mentioned as late as 1681 in use with the Tangier garrison". Light bills might also have been carried by officers as 'leading staffs.' which were more usually partizan-iypc staff weapons carried as much as a badge of office as a weapon.

liie pikeman had to learn a complex exercise to enable formed bodies to act in unison, as a mishandled tfi-foot pike could threaten friends as well as enemies. Many drill books appeared before and during the Civil W ars. but must have been followed eloselv only by those units with sufficient time to learn and practice ceremonial drill. Quite apart from manoeuvring-marching, countermarching and assembling in various formations - there might be more than 20 different 'postures' or basic movements to be learned in handling the pike, expressed as obliquely as:

Your Ptcke being ordouredat clou or Jour the but-endof it must bet- betwixt your feett, holding the same with your left hand, being ready to present to charge horse, and your right hand to draw your suvrd, setting forward your left fotte laying your Pickt, and left hand upon your left knee the butt being close at the right fotte and your sword in your right hand.'"

'litis complexity, and the difficulty in action of making audible such commands as, 'Hringcr up stand, the rest pass through lo the left and place yourself behind your bringer up', leads to the belief that in practice the complex drill was reduced to a few basic postures and commands; as Essex wrote, 'not to busy them in practising the ceremonious forms of military discipline', but 'be well instructed in the necessary rudiments of war. that they may know to fall on w ith discretion and retreat with care'10. The long practice necessary to achieve textbook precision might lead to confusion and the men becoming 'very untractable & undocile in their postures'11. When reduced to basics, pike drill would include: 'Stand to your Arms' (pike held upright in right hand, left hand on hip); 'Advance your Pikes' pike supported upright on right shoulder); 'Charge your Pike' pike held horizontally at shoulder level, used for advancing upon an enemy); and 'Charge to horse' (pikeman crouching, pike butt resting on right instep and pike angled upwards to meet enemy at horse-breast heightj. For marching, the pike would be 'shouldered' or 'trailed', the latter being used mainly at night and for funerals, in which the file leader held his pike horizontally by the head, the man behind held its butt, and so on, so that the column held each other's pikes and prevented anyone from becoming lost. In action ,'at push of pike', the opposing blocks of pikemen would push at one another with pikes 'charged' until one side gave way, though as the use of the pike declined pikemen were used more for protecting the musketeers than Tor settling the affair themselves, A regiment arrayed eight deep the Dutch practice which Essex employed» would present a formidable obstacle when pikes were 'charged' and. given steady troops, could only be broken by missile fire,

Though on the field 'the Gentlemen of the Pike craveth the precedence' ".musketeers increasingly held the key to seventeenth-century warfare. Two basic patterns of musket were in use the ordinary musket with a barrel length of 4I feet (1.4 metres), and the lighter 'calivcr' with a 3}-fooi (i.t-metre barrel. The caliver was virtually synonymous with the earlier term 'harquebus*, its name prohabty deriving from a batch of guns described as 'harquebus du calibre de Monsieur le Prince', i.e. expressing a particular calibre, but turned into 'calivcr' by 'some man not understanding French'Muskets were principally of the matchlock pattern, in which ignition of the powder charge was achieved by plunging a burning length of'match' 1combustible cord 1 into the priming pan. the match held in a spring-loaded metal taw attached internally to the trigger. To prevent the musket becoming useless by the extinction of its match, it was usual to keep both ends alight, one in the jaws of the 'lock' and one in the musketeer's hand, with a spare length of match wrapped around his waist or hung on his bandolier, in extremis, match could be improvised; before Roundway Down, Hopton made his from all ihe bed cords in I devizes!

I.oading the heavy musket via the muzzle with powder, ball and 'wadding* (to prevent the ball rolling out) was a slow but uncomplicated manoeuvre, but musket drill involved up to four dozen 'postures'. Again, these were of use principally for ceremonial occasions; a musketeer of any competency would know, without having to be ordered, how to prepare his weapon for firing, to load and prime il, to blow on the match until it glowed red. to aim and fire, so that instructions in action would be reduced to 'Make ready* ladjust and blow upon match;, 'Present* (aim), and 'Give fire*. Because of the weight of the musket it was usual to employ a 'rest', a spike-ended pole with a U-shaped end which would be tied to the musketeer's wrist and used to support the barrel when planted vertically in the ground, with the musket resting in the U. Throughout the Civil Wars, use of the rest declined as muskets became progressively more manageable. Designs of stock varied from the early, curved-butted variety, which would be fired with the butt 'just before above his left pappe' to the modern, straight-butted type,positioned with the button the right shoulder. The cost of a new musket with fittings was set in 1632 at 15s. 6d..and tod. for the rest, though in 1645 the New Mode! was buying muskets at t os. each. There was nostandard-1/.ation of bore, despite attempts like that of 1639 when the ordnance officers recommended lighter muskets (3^-foot (1,1-metre! barrel, iof to 11 pounds 4.6 to 5 kilogrammes) in weight, with reduced charges to lessen recoil), to which the Council of War responded by ordering 5.000 muskets with 4!-foot (1.4-mctrc) barrels at 14 pounds 16.4 kilogrammes) and 10,000 with 3^-foot (1.1-meirc) barrels at 12 pounds (5.4 kilogrammes); and in 1643 the King commanded that 'the Musquets be all of a Bore, the Pikes of a length", but as matériel was scarce these orders were only to come into effect when "the Arms shall be decayed, and must be renewed' Nevertheless, the heavy lead ball < 10 to the

IT Officer, Royalist horse 12 Trooper, King's Lifeguard 1642

The costume of the officer is based, in part, upon a portrait of Sir John Byron by William Dobson except that the man illustrated wears double-thickness upper sleeves to his buff-coat and a triple- barred helmet The enormous sash knot is a feature shown in a number ol contemporary portraits

The trooper belongs to the King s Lifeguard, which apparently wore a costume sufficiently uniform to be nicknamed (much 10 Ihett disgust) Ihe Troop of Shew' In January 1643 their equipment comprised a breastpfate. backplate. head-peece' and gorge(I . the whole termed an horse armour' or one Cofslett 1 Possibly some of this unit wore cuirassier armour, as it was composed exclusively of nobles, gentry and their retainers, at Edgehifl the two troops of Lifeguard, about 300 strong, formed a squadron the estates of whose members were reckoned to be worth E100.000 per annum. Amongst the troopers at Edgehill were included the Earls of Denbigh and Dovei, Lord Capel and the M P Sir Philip Warwick The Lifeguard served throughout the war and was particularly distinguished at Cropredy Bridge, where It numbered about 100, The trooper illustrated wears the usual breast-and-back' with the addition of gorget and tassets. a 'Dutch pot' helmet with fixed peak and single (sliding) nasal bar. and included amongst his horse Furniture is a rolled cloak strapped to Ihe rear of the saddle, and 'in his oat sack three or four baits of oais or bread for his horse, and provision for himself

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