Notes

1 Mundt, GeneralG .'i»t Duke of Albemarle Ofefftwiwu ufmi Alt/t-

Utyami Polincitl Affitm ¡Jjondcm. 16711 p 24 1 Cruw. pp 10-11 J Gnae, vol It, p. 336

4 New Mudel Army Conlratl Rot)k%. Jnurmd of ike .-trim jnJ AtmoUf

Society. VI(I96*i 103-4 J /in/..pp. 196-7 6 IbiJ.. p.

13 Col. Alexander Popham

14 Trooper. Popham's Horse

13 Col. Alexander Popham

14 Trooper. Popham's Horse paper tubes each containing enough powder for one shot), in which 'by biting off the bottom of the cartridge, you charge your musket with one ramming' and. by loading the paper as well, prevent the ball from rolling out of the barrel; musketeers using the older system, claimed Orrery, seldom added any 'wadding' to hold the hall in place, for "tis to that I attribute the little execution I have seen musketeers do in lime of fight '". I"he cartridges were carried in boxes, usually on a waistbelt, often under the coat to keep out rain, for which reason Orrery recommended tin boxes instead of wood. Grose calculated that the use of cartridges could treble the rate of fire. Monck noted that if bandoliers were unavailable, musketeers should have 'twelve Carthragcs ... in their right-hand pockets, and twelve Pullets apiece in their pockets besides'3*, though Davie* condemned the English practice of carry ing loose ammunition in the pockets, the cartridges 'doth shed and loose his powder ...or else is doddered and rammed together*"; he also recommended waterproof match pipes, said to have been invented by Prince Maurice of Orange, to ensure that 'the coale by wet or water go not out'**. Turner remarked that the use of waterproof bags to hold "Patrons' < cartridges) was limited largely to Germany. I"he quantity of ammunition carried varied with supply, but in November 1642 the Earl of Northampton's regiment was issued with 'Ech man his bandiliers full' amounting to 90 pounds ( 41 kilogrammes of powder and 1X0 pounds (82 kilogrammes! of ball for [80 men; in addition, each company had powder hags upon which its men could draw, 'two great bougcts made of dry' neats leather, which will hold a hundred weight of powder apcccc',,V

Musketeers' helmets were redundant before the Civil War. though some may have been used in the early stages; they were, said Davics, 'a burthen, more beautiful than bénéficiait, and of greater charge than com-moditie", making the wearers "more apt to rest, than

Continental matchlock musket with rifled barrel, dated 1619. with forked rest which includes match holder, presumably to allow it to double as linstock (Waflis & Wallis)

Powder flask of engraved cow horn (Wallis ft Wallis)

ready to fight'in any case, Monck said that a musketeer's best defence was 'a good Courage'. The musketeer's sword, 'a good stiff Tuck not very long'40 was considered 'despicable'41 by Turner, who recommended instead that they used the musket butt as a club, which seems to have been an acknowledged Pritish tactic. Louis de Gava's Traité des Armes ( 1678) saying of them, l^a Fantassins ne îc servent presque pas d'Epecs, et quand ils ont/air la décharge du Mousquet, ils se battent à coups de Crosse*1. With bayonets not yet invented, attempts were made to turn the musket rest into a weapon by incorporating a spike or even a hidden blade, but these proved 'extremely troublesome to themselves. dangerous to their folloteen'*s. a statement echoed by Turner who thought rests in general 'more troublesome than helpful'44; even worse were attempts to give musketeers a half-pike instead of a rest, but 'one of them was enough to trouble a whole file'**. A compromise was to equip the musketeer with a 'swine-feat her' or 'Swedish feather', a five-or six-foot ; 1.5- or 1.8-metre) staike with a pike head on each end. that was planted like a palisade or even used as a short pike; it was recommended by Monck and Turner (who thought a regiment thus equipped made 'a delightful show, representing 3 Wood, the Pikes resembling the tall trees, and the Stakes the shrubs'4") hut was never popular as the musketeer had enough to carry without the extra burden.

Organization. Equipment and Tactics

Organization. Equipment and Tactics

Matchlock musket with rest

Initially, equipment was gathered from the local trained band armouries and from the private collections of adherents to either side. Later in the war, arms were imported or made to order (in 1645. for example, the New Model ordered at least 15,950 matchlocks, 2,300 firelocks, 8,too pikes, 25,200 bandoliers, 12400 swords and t, too corselets and he I met 3), but (particularly in the Royalist forces, ill-supplied throughout) equipment in the early stages was sometimes rudimentary and, when drawn from Parish armouries, often antique. Some trained bands (those of London and provincial corps like Great Yarmouth ! maintained their equipment well, but elsewhere it was outdated and in poor repair. Tomes' store in 1626 included 33 corselets, 97 muskets, ¡3 'callvvers' and 95 halberds'**, and many examples of wretched equipment can be quoted: armour worn thin by years of cleaning, 'only fin to hang over the skreene in a Italic the whole age of a man ere yt be taken downe'48,'very rawlie furnished, some whereof lacketh a headpiece, somme a sworde, somme one thing or other that is evill, unfitt, or unbeseeminge about him'J1J. The mediocre state of such armouries gave great advantage to whichever side could secure the great state armouries such as that of the Tower (which gave Parliament an early advantage) and Hull, the arsenal for the Scottish war and the object of much manoeuvring to appoint a friendly governor, StrafTord.as Lord-Lieutenant,engineered the appointment of Sir Thomas Glemham in September 1640, but he was removed by Parliament in the following July and replaced by Sir John Hotham. whose refusal toadmit the King in April 1642 denied the Royalists the use of the Hull arsenal. Private armouries yielded many weapons to the King, but these were often of poor quality; the armoury surveyed at Tutbury Castle in 1608. for example, was composed largely of items 'cancered. rotten, and not worth anie thing saveing the heades of bills, pikes, and some few callivers, but all eaten with cancer s°. Other gifts and levies were better; the father of Anthony Wood at Oxford supplied 'the armour or furniture on one man, viz.: a helmet, a back and breast-piece, a pyke.and musket, and other appurtenances. and the eldest of his man-servants ... did appeare in those armes,and much ado there was to keep Thomas the eldest son ... from putting on the said armour ...' and at the start of the war a Captain Robert Miliington alone presented the King with 80 muskets.

Despite Charles' earlier attempts to keep Royal munitions in good repair, preventing them from being tampered with by 'cutlers, smvths, tynkers, and other botchers of armes'>2 so that 'wee may not be inforced in tvme of warre to seeke for armes, armours, gunnes, pikes, and bandalters, in fbrraine parts'SJ, importation was employed by both factions, though with limited

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