48 Pikeman, Earl of Manchester's Regt

49 Musketeer. Col Thomas Grantham's Regt

50 Musketeer. Edward Montague's Regt.

PI ate 19 i 11 u s I r ales m em bet s of P a rl 1 am e n t s f ore e s, c 1643 4 all with a white field sign in the form of a handkerchief or slip of paper The pikeman wears ihe green uniform, turned up with red, of the Earl of Manchester s Regiment of the Eastern Association: there is no evidence that the Earl's Edgehilt regiment, when he was Lord Mandeville. wore the same colouring The pikeman illustrated wears a breastplate with a flange on the bottom edge, instead of tassels, and has his helmet hung from a hook on his back plate

The musketeer of Thomas Grantham's wears the regimental russet uniform: none of theearty Partiamentary corps had more professional officers (at least nine with military experience, including a captain who had held that rank as early as the Rhe expedition), but the regiment disappeared in early 1643 The musketeer has wrapped his musket lock in cloth to protect it on the march, and carries a leather water bottle, which had to be acquired by the individual as no official issue was made despite the frequent scarcity of drinking water

The musketeer of Edward Montague's Regiment wears its red uniform with white lining, the latter visible at the turned-back cuffs He carries a lirelock and a bandolier incorporating a scalloped-edged, buff-leather flap protecting the tops of the cartridge lubes from the weather The somewhat archaic shape of the musket butt suggests that it may be a conversion from an earlier matchlock; many styles of butt and stock may have been used within the same regiment, at least judging from the collection of muskets preserved at Oxford which, with the collections at Apethorpe. Northamptonshire, and Littlecote represents a remarkable survival from the mid seventeenth century. The Oxford muskets have barrel lengths ranging from 41 to 49 inches (104 to 124 centimetres): the Council of War in 1630quoted 48-inch (122-centimetre) barrels, though the ordnance officers in 1639 recommended a reduction to 42 inches (107 centimetres); Turner notes that The longer a Musket is (so it be manageable) the better, for she shoots the further and experience daily teacheth what advantage a long Musket hath of a short one'1 The Oxford muskets have all manner of butts, from the 'French' (straight upper edge) to the crooked, Ihe 'club' type or the modern shape: the carving 'OX' on the butls of some seems to denote a connection either with the regiment formed with ihe University's assistance in 1642, with such weapons as they had trained up and down Ihe streets'1, 01 by the University company raised during the Monmouth rebellion, in which case some of the muskets would have been very archaic 1

1 Quoted in Ffoulkcv C European Armi <mJ Armour in ilu L'mi'frnry a/ Qijerd OxiiirJ. 19UJ p. u j Set: Spenctr. Dr M.G timrly English Mm ken in the Town Hall *t Oxford' Jounut 0/ iht Armi anJ Armvur Sacun IX l<JT7 10-17

French Musketeer Uniform

Co1 Thomas Grsntham'sReflt.

50 Musketeer. Edward Montague s

48 pikerrmn

49 Musketeer Eerlot Manchester s Regt « w

Co1 Thomas Grsntham'sReflt.

50 Musketeer. Edward Montague s

1643 Musketeers

51 Officer. Parliamentary greycoat regt. 52 Fifer. Parliamentary foot 53 Drummer. Parliamentary foot

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