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were forced to evacuate Fort Pillow. Now only Montgomery's eight cotton-clad steam rams protected Memphis.

At dawn on June 6, as the Federal fleet of five ironclads and four rams steamed into view, Montgomery's gunboats prepared to defend Memphis from the river. In a melee of ramming and close-quarter fighting, three Confederate boats were destroyed and four captured.

Confederate casualties numbered an estimated 100 dead and 70-100 captured. Only four Federal casualties were recorded. Memphis surrendered to Federal authority, leaving Vicksburg the next strategic target in the Union's Mississippi Valley Campaign.

f 1 April 8-29: Halleck assembles three " separate armies as one massive army group

1^2) April 22: Pope's army begins to arrive in preparation for offensive. Davis's division arrives to reinforce Halleck

0 April 29: Halleck's army group advances inland along a ten mile front

(jT) Hampered by spring storms and sickness, Halleck's Federals dig rifle pits and redoubts, and improve roads to bring up army and its supplies

(J) May 4: Sherman's division entrenches. Concerned about his exposed right flank, Halleck entrenches Thomas's army upon each stage of the advance

(jj) May 9: Beauregard attacks elements of Pope's army in Farmington, but disorganized assault enables Pope to extract his forces

(j^ May 28-29: Federals partially invest Corinth, and shell the town

(^gj May 29: Beauregard, unable to defeat Federal army, evacuates Corinth during the night and moves to Tupelo

May 30: Halleck takes possession of ^ Corinth

Author of a number of standard works on tactics, Maj. Gen. Henry Wager Halleck (right) was known by the nickname "Old Brains". Many who had heard of the general's reputation experienced "a distinct feeling of disappointment" when they met him in person.

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northward, briefly occupying Natchez ^

The Union mortar flotilla was commanded by Farragut's adoptive brother, David D. Forter. For six days forts Jackson and St. Fhilip were bombarded by the 20 mortar schooners, each of which mounted one heavy 13-inch mortar and two or more long 32-pounders (above).

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The Lower Mississippi

Lower Mississippi Valley april 24 -

july 1862

Militarily for the Union, only the avoidance of European intervention and the retention of the border states exceeded the importance of controlling the Mississippi River. After efforts to descend it failed, the Lincoln administration ordered an attack on New Orleans. While Federal forces under Captain David G. Farragut and General Butler organized at Ship Island, Confederate officials reduced the garrison at New Orleans. When Farragut's ships entered the Mississippi in early April, Confederate opposition consisted of 500 men and 80 cannon in Forts Jackson and St. Philip, a chain floated on barges to barricade the river, and an ineffective fleet.

After a six-day mortar bombardment failed to silence the forts, Farragut decided to run the gauntlet. Early on April 24, his fleet penetrated the barricade, passed the forts, and destroyed the Confederate flotilla. Continuing upstream, Farragut captured New Orleans, the Confederates having abandoned the city to avoid its destruction by bombardment.

Going on to Vicksburg, Farragut discovered that its high bluffs rendered naval bombardment ineffective. Regardless, his superiors ordered him to continue the shelling. In late June, Farragut passed the Vicksburg batteries to join a Federal flotilla upstream. On July 15, the Confederate ironclad Arkansas passed through both Federal fleets before anchoring at Vicksburg. That night, Farragut ran the gauntlet again in an unsuccessful attempt to destroy the Arkansas.

Within two weeks, increasing sickness and the falling river compelled Farragut to abandon Vicksburg. After landing General Thomas Williams and 3,200 soldiers at Baton Rouge, the fleet continued to New Orleans. Farragut's departure from Vicksburg prompted Confederate General Van Dorn to secure the Mississippi between Vicksburg and Port Hudson.

On August 5, Confederate forces attacked Baton Rouge. Fog, friendly fire, and excessive troop movements hampered their advance, but once the first Federal regiment broke and Williams was killed, a rout quickly ensued. The Confederates chased the Federals to the river, where shells from Federal gunboats halted their pursuit. Although Arkansas's engine failure robbed the Confederates of a tactical victory, the threat they posed caused the Federals to evacuate Baton Rouge 16 days later, enabling Van Dorn to fortify Port Hudson.

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