Once temporarily relieved of command on the suspicion of insanity, William T. Sherman (above) still enjoyed Grant's full confidence. Though unsuccessful in his assault on Vicksburg's defenses, he had repeatedly proved his willingness and aptitude in combat.

Despite devastating fire from the Confederate defenses, Sherman's force advanced toward the bluffs north of Vicksburg near Chickasaw Bayou (left). The Confederates were able to hold off their more numerous assailants and the attack failed. Union casualties were 1,776, Confederate 207.

Ticksburg is the key. The war can V never be brought to a close until the key is in our pocket. We can take all the northern parts of the Confederacy, and they can still defy us from Vicksburg. It means... fresh troops from the States of the far South, and a cotton country where they can raise the staple without interference."

President Abraham Lincoln.

"T Ticksburg is the nailhead that

V [holds] the South's two halves together."

President Jefferson Davis.

Confederate guns at Arkansas Post (left) were battered by the gunboats of Admiral Porter's fleet, while McClernand's force attacked over land. After some four hours the vastly outnumbered Confederates surrendered. Casualties: 1061 Union, 4791 Confederate.

Stones river campaign

29 December, 1862

Union advance from Nashville gladeville

Gen. Breckinridge, prior to the attack on January 2.

Gen. James S. Negley's Federal division counterattacks across Stones River (above). Only the onset of darkness brought a halt to the Union pursuit of Breckinridge's shattered division.

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