Joletown

Armies diminished in size part of Early's command left to join Robert E. Lee in Petersburg the rest dispersed to hunt for supplies. Sheridan's men were sent on various duties, until eventually he retained only two cavalry divisions. Sheridan opened the final act of the Valley campaign when his cavalry broke camp on February 25, 1865, and started southward. Sheridan defeated Early's meager cavalry force on March 2, at Mount Crawford. The following day, the Federals destroyed the remnant of...

Confederate Cavalry Raids july4july27 1862

To disrupt General Buell's offensive to seize Chattanooga, Confederate Colonels John Hunt Morgan and Nathan Bedford Forrest led slashing cavalry raids into central Kentucky and middle Tennessee to cut Federal supply lines, and throw Buell's operation into confusion. Morgan left Knoxville on July 4, with 876 officers and men in the newly formed Second Kentucky Cavalry Led by a vanguard of 60 scouts, the column rode north for the bluegrass state of Kentucky. For 24 days, Morgan's Kentuckians...

Sheridan and Early in the Shenandoah Valley Phase

General Philip Sheridan came to the Shenandoah Valley to eliminate Early's army, and wreck the breadbasket of the Confederacy. During early September, Sheridan's 20,000 Federals sparred cautiously with Early's 12,000 Confederates. With the presidential election approaching, Sheridan could not afford to lose. Jubal Early mistook Sheridan's reluctance to fight for timidity, and grew bolder The Federals bided their time, waiting for an opportunity to strike.

Meade

Confederate prisoners of war await transferral to Northern jails (below). When he began his retreat to Virginia on the night of July 4, Lee's combat strength had been reduced by nearly one third. The defenders of Cemetery Ridge included a brigade commanded by Brig. Gen. Alexander Webb (above). Webb's leadership in rallying his men during the Confederate assault won him the Medal of Honor. X t seems likely we shall be led in a _L plodding, ordinary sort of way, neither giving nor receiving any...

Icktis

After defeating the Federals at Monocacy, Early continued to advance toward Washington, reaching the city's northern environs on July 11. In the ensuing panic, over 20,000 men, including invalids and militia, were rushed into Washington's defenses. Faced with these numbers, Early gave up his plans for assault. After extensive skirmishing, especially at Fort Stevens, the Confederates withdrew (below). UreanaVV-Hyattstown , , clakkselfrg The Cham Bridge over the Potomac River near Washington...

Sant

Shenandoah valley from Cedar Creek (2) May 12 Confederates gather at Staunton under Breckinridge j May IS Breckinridge defeats-Sigel abC,, N ew Marker,- forcing Sigel to retreat back to Cedar Geek May 26 Hunter replaces Sigel and' sets out June2 .Hurjef ncountersConfed rate cavalry Mount, Crawford , June 5 Federals defeat Confederates 2 s Piedmont and the Confederate ' ' commander, Jones, is-killed J) Jones's Confederates, now under Imboden, rttrtit to Fishersville J

Earlys Washington Raid june27august41864

General Jubal Early set out to make a nuisance of himself by harassing the Washington defenses. After General Hunter's Federals retreated from Lynchburg, Early's Army of the Valley raced northward down the Shenandoah Valley. Crossing the Potomac River into Maryland, Early headed for Washington. Federal General Lew Wallace attempted to delay Early's advance near Frederick on July 9, 1864. In a costly, time consuming battle along Monocacy Creek, the Confederates forced Wallace to fall back into...

Hempi

In an attempt to curb the activities of Confederate guerillas, Brig. Gen. Thomas Ewing (right) ordered that any women aiding and abetting the raiders should be detained in Kansas City. The building in which the women were held collapsed, killing five and injuring many others, and spurring-on Quantrill and his men to their act of'revenge' Although he obtained a captain s commission early in the war, William Clarke Quantrill (far right) was denied promotion because of his reputation for ferocity....

Palmer

May 15, late pm Division of Hood's corps attacks Federal right repulsed (see map far left) May 15 Division of Federal XVI Corps crosses Oostanaula at Lay's Ferry, threatening Johnston's supply lines May 15, night Johnston reacts by retreating to Calhoun, pursued by Sherman (see map fat left) May 16-18 Johnston retreats to Cassville, pursued by Sherman May 19, am Hood's and Polk's corps in position to ambush Federal XX Corps en route to Cassville. Attack canceled when Federal cavalry appear in...

South Atlantic Coast august27November7i86i

While the Federal navy made plans for a systematic blockade of southern coasts, they also reacted to specific threats. In July 1861 Confederate vessels, operating from behind the North Carolina Banks, captured two Federal merchantmen This action, coupled with a fear of what Confederate raiders might accomplish if allowed to operate in these waters, convinced Lincoln it was necessary to control Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds. This could best be accomplished by seizing Ocracoke Inlet, guarded by...

Sheridan

Assault at three raw and.ill prepared New Yark regiments under Gibbon. Many of I he Federals .surrendered unlhout resistance and Iks Union lost 2, 750 men, nine guns. 12 hat flags and omr 3_, 000 rifles. Hill's casualties numbered 720 (see map below). living is now very poor, nothing but corn-bread and poor beef - blue and tough - no vegetables, no coffee, sugar, tea or even molasses You would laugh, or cry, when you see me eating my supper It is hard to maintain one's patriotism on ashcake and...

North Carolina

I 'he effect of the explosion will be JL very severe, stunning men at a distance of three or four hundred yards and making them unable to stand for any length of time a fire from the ships I think that houses in Wilmington will tumble to the ground and I think if the rebels fight after the explosion they have more in them than I gave them credit for. Admiral Porter predicting the effects of the U.S.S. Louisiana's detonation. By the end of 1864 Wilmington, North Carolina, was the last important...

Alabama

By mid-morning on April 12, Forrest bad hemmed in the Union garrison at Fort Pillow. In the final assault, fighting dismounted, Confederates stormed the fort. Union soldiers fled to the river and were caught in a murderous hail of small arms fire. Excessive killing occurred and Forrest was accused of murdering black prisoners (see map below). Nine days later, Forrest thundered into sleeping Memphis, narrowly missing capturing Gen. Hurlbut. Gen. Washburn also escaped by scampering out of the...

Valverde

March 26, the Federal vanguard, under Major John Chivington, met and defeated the Confederates in a running fight in Apache Canyon. March 28 was a decisive day for the campaign the reinforced Confederates headed east, but as they debouched from Glorieta Pass, they encountered Slough's force. A desperate battle ensued. About 5 pm, the Federals disengaged and returned to their camp at Kozlowski's Ranch. But that was not the end. Earlier in the day Chivington with 490 men had crossed the mountain...

Hoods Tennessee Campaign october i November 301864

Following his evacuation of Atlanta on September 2, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood withdrew to Palmetto, Georgia, to rebuild his army. This completed, he advanced into northern Georgia in early October with the object of destroying the Union lines of communication - the railroad between Chattanooga and Atlanta -thereby compelling Sherman to fall back to Tennessee. However, not only did he fail to wreck the railroad, but was forced to flee into northern Alabama to escape Sherman, who...

Antietam Campaign

(j Sept 15-15 Walker's- Confederate division occupies Loudoun Heigfits and completes the cordon aroundMiles.'s s, division. The. Federals surrender 12,500 troops on tfie l5th Sept 4-7 McOeHan resumes command of the Federal a my an of advances cautiously to find L e and cover Washington Sipt 13 McClellan Reaches Frederick and discovers Lee's plafis in the mislaid Confederate Ordef 1911 Sept 14 Federal iind IXCorps capture Turner's Gap fromj D.H. HiB nd Longatreevforcingja Confederate retreat...

Info

The Union lost 1,270 the Confederates about 2,000. The dramatic Federal successes, which began with General Grant's capture of forts Henry and Donelson in February 1862, shifted attention and resources away from the Trans-Mississippi theater. After Van Dorn led reinforcements across the Mississippi, Confederate Major General Thomas C. Hindman raised an army of 11,000 men, and in early December moved against Brigadier General James G. Blunt's 7,000 men near...

Total

Defeatism infected many Southern people during the winter of 1863-1864. I have never actually despaired of the cause, wrote a Confederate War Department official m November, but steadfastness is yielding to a sense of hopelessness. Inflation galloped out of control. A Richmond diarist recorded this incident in October 1863 A merchant told a poor woman that the price of a barrel of flour was 70. My God exclaimed she, how can I pay such prices I have seven children whar shall I do I don't know,...

Steedman

Union losses at Port Hudson were increased by the poor judgement of Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (above). Earlier defeats in the Shenandoah Valley and at Cedar Mountain had apparently done little to abate the government's confidence in a man who was essentially a politician rather than a soldier. May 27,8 am Two divisions under Brig. Gen. Godfrey Weitzel reach Confederate breastworks 9 am Reinforcements from the center enable Confederates io repulse WeiUeTs attack It gives me pleasure to report...

Grants Second Vicksburg Campaign

Axe Drainage

Grant determined to operate against Vicksburg from a base on the Mississippi, and in the last days of January 1863 he established his headquarters at Milliken's Bend. This position would enable him to utilize Admiral David D. Porter's gunboats operating above Vicksburg, and supply his army by steam boat. Grant's Army of the Tennessee consisted of four corps Sherman's XV Corps at Young's Point McClernand's XIII at Milliken's Bend McPherson's XVII at Lake Providence and Stephen A. Hurlbut's XVI...

Tullahoma Campaign Capture of Chattanooga

Following its defeat at Stones River (called Murfreesboro by the Confederacy) in January 1863, General Braxton Bragg's Confederate Army of Tennessee withdrew to a defensive line which had been established northwest of Tullahoma, Tennessee. Weak and easily turned, Bragg's position nevertheless permitted him to retain control of a rich agricultural area for the Confederacy. For six months, General Rosecrans's Army of the Cumberland remained in its camps around Murfreesboro, reorganizing and...

R 2 1864

Tliat same night, the resr of the Confederate array evacuated the now untenable Atlanta, which was occupied by XX Corps on September 2. When he heard the news, Sherman telegraphed Washington Atlanta is ours, and fairly won, hen fell back to the city, thus ending the campaign. During the campaign, both Federal and Confederate losses each totaled about 40,000. By reviving sagging Union morale, the fall of Atlanta assured Lincoln's reelection in 1864. It also assured the Confederacy's ultimate...

Morell

From August 27 to the evening of the 28th, Pope's forces scoured the area looking for Jackson's elusive raiders. At 6 p.m. on the 28th, Jackson attacked a detached Federal brigade at Brawner's Farm. This fierce engagement of the Federal brigade - which later became known as the Iron Brigade -gave Pope a point on which to concentrate his forces and destroy Jackson. The Confederates prepared a strong defensive line, with their left at Sudley Springs and their right at Brawner's Farm. The infantry...

Iuka and Corinth September 19 October 41862

Buffington Island Battlefield Map

While national attention focused on Gen-eral Bragg's Kentucky invasion, 14,000 Confederates under General Sterling Price occupied Iuka on September 14. Price planned to move to the Tennessee River and prevent General Grant from sending reinforcements to General Buell, whose Federal army was pursuing Bragg into Kentucky. In response, Grant set a trap to destroy Price, ordering General Rosecrans with 10,000 troops to advance on Iuka from the south and attack Price. Meanwhile, Grant himself...

Epilogue

The nation went into profound mourning at Lincoln's death. Thousands paid their last respects at the White House on April 19, and General Grant wept openly by his catafalque. Seven million people lined railroad tracks from Washington to Springfield to view Lincoln's funeral train as it retraced the exact route Lincoln had taken to Washington four years earlier. Union cavalry captured the fleeing Jefferson Davis in Georgia on May 10. The United States government discovered evidence of the role...

Shermans Atlanta Campaign Phase 1 may 7201864

By early May, Sherman had assembled a force of 100,000 men in the Chattanooga area. The force consisted of General Thomas's Army of the Cumberland, McPherson's Army of the Tennessee, and Schofield's Army of the Ohio. Facing it at Dalton, Georgia, were about 55,000 Confederates under General Johnston, organized into two infantry corps under Generals William J. Hardee and John B. Hood, and a cavalry corps led by Major General Joseph Wheeler. Aware that Johnston's position on Rocky Face Ridge was...

Shermans Carolinas Campaign February 1april 26 1865

General Grant's original plan had been to bring Sherman's army - once it reached the Atlantic coast - by ship to Virginia, where it would join with Federal forces already there to crush Robert E. Lee. But after Sherman's occupation of Savannah, Grant changed his mind, authorizing Sherman to march through South and North Carolina to Virginia. Sherman was to destroy Lee's supply base and wage psychological war against the South. On February 1 Sherman began the march through South Carolina, his...

Km

Confederate'General Albert Sidney Johnston (left) had sewed m the p.S. Army during the Black.Hawk and Mexican ufais. Commissioned a full general in the Confederate Army at the outbreak'of war he enjoyed considerable popularity and his death at Shiloh was counted a national disaster. Jan 17 Marching via Columbia, Thomas reaches Logan's Cross Roads Jan 20-26 Crittenden retreats to Gainesboro < fo) April 11 Morgan, ordered to seize Cumberland Ford. To defend the Gap, Confederates rush two...

Western Virginia june 3 September 13 i86i

Western Virginians had little in common with the rest of the state, and actively opposed secession. Steps were taken to organize a loyalist Virginia government in Wheeling, and to raise Virginia units to fight for the Union. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad crossed western Virginia to control it was a strategic imperative for the Union, and by late May, Federal troops had occupied Grafton, a key junction The Confederacy responded by sending soldiers into the region to recruit and threaten the...

Grants First Vicksburg Campaign

Grant Army

Since the occupation of Corinth, Mississippi, in May, 1862, the Federal Army of the Tennessee had operated in West Tennessee and North Mississippi. Grant had concentrated 36,000 troops at Grand Junction, Tennessee, from where he proposed marching south to repair the Mississippi Central Railroad. The capture of Jackson would enable the Federals to approach Vicksburg from the east. The Confederate forces, now led by Lieutenant General John C. Pember-ton who had replaced Van Dorn, were based at...

The Triumph and the Tragedy

The year 1865 opened with the resolution of an issue that had generated bitter controversy - a bitterness that persisted for decades after the war - over the exchange of prisoners of war. In 1862, the Union and Confederate armed forces had signed a cartel for the exchange of prisoners cap tured in battle. The arrangement had worked reasonably well for a year, making large prison camps unnecessary. But when the Union army began to organize regiments of former slaves, the Confederate government...

The Turning of the Tide

Paysage Printemps Dessiner

Morale in the Union armies and on the home front reached a new low in the early months of 1863 Captain Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., a future Supreme Court Justice who was recovering from the second of three wounds he would receive in the war, wrote that the army is tired with its hard and terrible experience. I've pretty much made up my mind that the South have achieved their independence. The staunchly patriotic editor of the Chicago Tribune vented his frustration and depression in a private...

Map Battle Westport

17th Century Siege Maps

Sterling Price's invasion of Missouri developed rapidly with skirmishing at Arcadia, Ironton and Mineral Point. His original plan to attack St. Louis whose warehouses were stocked with useful goods -was dropped when Price learned of the strength of its defenses, manned by 8,000 Federals. Instead, Price decided to capture Fort Davidson, just south of Pilot Knob (above). On September 27, Price's 7,000 raiders charged the fort's thick walls. The Federals, commanded by Thomas Ewing, held off...

Refolds

Private Thomas Taylor right , Company K, 8th Louisiana Infantry 'g Sept 12 Rust, leading the attack on Cheat Mountain, loses his nerve and retreats, see inset map above 10 July 11-25 Federals, lead by Jacob D. Cox, advance by way of Kanawha River and occupy Charleston. fn July 29 Cox's forces advance and occupy gorge at Gauley Bridge, Aug 26 Confederates cross Gauley River at Carnifax Ferry and rout Federals at Cross Lanes. ' 3 Sept 2-10 Rosecrans, having succeeded McClellan, marches three...

Shermans Atlanta Campaign may2ijuly9 1864

After crossing the Etowah, Johnston took up another impregnable position at Allatoona. Sherman responded by swinging his army around to the west and south of the town, a move he expected would cause Johnston to fall back to the Chattahoochee River. Instead, Johnston blocked Serman's thrust at New Hope church on May 25, and at Pickett's Mill on May 27, but then himself suffered a reverse in a bungled assault at Dallas on May 28. Unable to advance, and suffering supply problems due to his...

Second Manassas Bull Run Campaign Phase

In the sweltering heat of late July, 1862, a new threat to the Confederacy loomed out of Northern Virginia. Federal General John Pope massed the beaten elements of the 1862 Valley Campaign and started south toward Culpeper Court House. Lee detested Pope's bombastic proclamations against Southern civilians, and dispatched Stonewall Jackson to supress Pope's Army of Virginia. In early August, Jackson gathered his 22,000 troops at Orange and Gordonsville, but soon advanced to strike at an isolated...

I

Buffington Island Battlefield Map

10-11.30am Confederates assault Shermanand.McCleraandon the Hamburg - Purdey road, driving back Union right flank 8-9.30am Wallace's and Hurlbut's divisions march to the front 9-I0.30am Johnston, hearing that his right flank is threatened, orders Chalmers' and Jackson's brigades to assault Federal left, with Breckinridge in support f s 6.30-9am Johnston maneuvers eight brigades to overrun Prentiss's camps, O 7-1 Oam Sherman's division repulses Confederates, inflicting heavy casualties....

The Siege of Richmond

Images The Battle Fort Harrison

Although he remained focused upon Petersburg, General Grant perceived that Federal activity north of the James River might draw Confederate forces from the Petersburg trenches to permit a Federal breach. On July 27 he sent II Corps to attack through the X Corps bridgehead at Deep Bottom in a major demonstration. His goals were to weaken the Confederate garrison opposite the IX Corps mine at Petersburg and free a cavalry force to raid railroads near Richmond. The violent Confederate response did...

Gettysburg july i 1863

After the discovery on June 30 that Gettysburg was occupied by Brigadier General John Buford's division of Federal cavalry, the Confederates on July 1 sent the divisions of Major General Henry Heth and Major General William Pender of Hill's Corps, down the Chambersburg Road to drive Buford away and occupy Gettysburg. The battle began at 5.30 a.m., when shots were exchanged over Marsh Creek. In the face of Buford's resistance, Heth pushed on cautiously until he reached a point about two miles...

Battle Of Big Bethel

Battle Big Bethel Field

Then fire and give them the bayonet. And when you charge, yell like furies July 21, night Intending to turn the -Confederate left, McDowell advances 10,000 men from Centreville to the west and south. Gen. T. J. Jackson at the battle in which he earned the nickname 'Stonewall' 8.30am Confederates defending Stone Bridge learn that the Federals are at Sudle Ford. Brig Gen. N. G. Evans moves portion of his command to meet the Federal threat. am Evaiis opposes...

Operations in the Shenandoah Valley may june 1864

The Shenandoah Valley was a thorn in General Grant's side the Confederates had used the Valley repeatedly as an invasion route into Maryland and Pennsylvania, and the fertile region had also served as the breadbasket of the Confederacy. Grant wanted Federal troops in the Valley to work in conjunction with Meade's Army of the Potomac. General Franz Sigel led 8,900 Federals up the Valley until Major General John C. Breckinridge's Confederates challenged their advance at New Market on May 15,...

Steeles Arkansas Campaign march i may 391864

Steele Arkansas Campaign

To distract Confederate forces away from General Nathaniel Banks's Red River cam paign in Louisiana, Major General Frederick Steele led 8,500 men south from Little Rock on March 23. Forces led by General Sterling Price, who commanded the Confederate District of Arkansas, unsuccessfully opposed his crossing of the Little Missouri River at Elkins' Ferry on April 3. Casualties were insignificant. Reinforced by 5,000 men from Fort Smith under Brigadier General John Milton Thayer, Steele next...

November 15 December 21 1864

After General Hood's Confederates evacuated Atlanta on September 2, Sherman's army occupied the city. Early in October, hoping to compel Sherman to relinquish Atlanta by destroying the Federal lines of communication - the railroad between the city and Chattanooga - Hood advanced into northern Georgia. Sherman rapidly pursued although he prevented Hood from seriously damaging the railroad, he was unable to engage him in battle. Fearing that the strategic gains from the capture of Atlanta would...

Aires

J July 3,5.30am-10am Johnson's division of Ewell's corps launches repeated but unsuccessful attacks on Culp's Hill 1pm Artillery cannonade begins with signal gun at the Peach Orchard 3pm Pickett's, Pettigrew's and Trimble's Confederate infantry advance for attack 4 3.30pm Stannard's Federal brigade attacks flank of Pickett's division 3.45pm Limit of Confederate infantry attacks at the Angle and clump of trees 5,30pm Farnsworth's cavalry charge against Confederate right meets with disaster To...

Isbn 9780762423569

This book may be ordered by mail from the publisher. Published by Courage Books, an imprint of Running Press Book Publishers 2300 Chestnut Street, suite 200 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103-4399 Visit us on the web www.runningpress.com George Henry Davis Professor of American History Princeton University, New Jersey Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Battle Cry of Freedom The Civil War Era, Vol. VI in the Oxford History of the United States. His other books include The Struggle for Equality,...

Mobile Bay Campaign

Images Maj Gen Gordon Granger

On his promotion to Federal General-in-Chief, Grant set himself a number of tasks, one of which was the capture of Mobile, Alabama. This would close one of the two major ports for blockade running left open to the Confederacy. The attack on Mobile was aimed at the forts at the entrances to Mobile Bay, and on the Confederate naval squadron that included the ironclad ram Tennessee, considered to be invincible. The attack was a joint venture by the Federal army, led by Major General Gordon...

Erjdan

A Union battery in one of Petersburg's captured forts above . The Union artillery bad undoubtedly inflicted far more considerable damage than that of the Confederates, and the ground within the fortifications was found to be honeycombed with the effects of the shot. along the White Oak Road. The next day Sheridan's cavalry and V Corps advanced to Five Forks where they crushed George Pickett's command. This decisive action sealed Petersburg's fate. On April 2, Grant directed a massive assault on...

Pasquotank River

P Jan 11 Fleet of over 60 vessels with some 15,000 troops sails from Hampton Roads to the North Carolina Sounds Jan 13 Fleet arrives in Hatteras Inlet Jan 22 Brig. Gen. Henry A. Wise named , to command G niedcnue io.rrgft,_____' d r_ J Jan 24-Feb 5 Union Bee crosses Hatteras w inJet-Bar iw emeis Paialico Sountf fqY'Feb7 Bnmsde'stroopsland in Roanoke ' I need not say how unfavorable an influence these defeats, following in such quick succession, have produced in public sentiment. If not soon...

Ifolk

Our vessel, The Virginia, has invented a new way of destroying the blockade. Instead of raising it she sinks it or I believe she is good at both, for the one she burned was raised to a pretty considerable height when the magazine exploded. A Confederate soldier reporting on the destruction of the Cumberland and Congress. stack of the Virginia bears the scars caused by the battery-fire at Roads right .

T

He Susquehanna opened the ball, and in a few minutes the entire fleet concentrated its fire on Fort Hatteras The bombardment was continued without intermission, when, at half-past eleven a white flag was displayed on the fort General Butler demanded an unconditional surrender These terms after a Council of War, were accepted. New York Illustrated News, September 16, 1861. Aug 27 Stringham's Federal squadron Yorkville ' arrives off Hatteras. Preparations for f FnR 2 Aug 28,8 45 am Butler's...

S2s Bovntx Given Bt The V S Government

TO 3E PAtt Id BOOK AS HV5TXRE2 urro sehtics f0- It is intended to nuics this one of the best CosEpsnies in the Bngtd or set-rice, ad no aber wjii be sparej to do so. The Officcr are experienced men, h Tine been over one year is one of the Pint Besiment in the service One of the many recruitment posters which were very successful in swelling the ranks of the Union army The four border slave states - Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware - were badly divided by the war. All four remained...