Batteries

Captain Theodorus Bailey and party rowing ashore to demand the surrender of New .Orleans (above) The mayor refused to lower the Confederate flag and this action was performed by two Unipn officers in the face of armed and hostile crowds of the city's inhabitants.

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.-—^At~iam-Fa*wgiti^s fleet steaded northward in an attempt to bypass the cityt<s formidable batteries. By 4am the Confederates were alerted to Farragut's intentions and the batteries opened fire. By 6am the entire fleet, with the exception of three vessels, had run the gauntlet. The action was important in that it revealed how a flotilla could escape serious damage while passing land batteries, but it had also become clear that Vicksburg could not be captured by a fleet unaided by land-based troops. Federal casualties numbered 45.

Col Edward Canby (above) commanded a force of approximately 1,000 territorial militia, inadequately trained and equipped. In preparation for Sibley's anticipated assault, Canby was able to raise five regiments with the assistance of prominent New Mexicans. As a result of his having won the battle of Glorieta Pass, Canby was promoted and transferred to Washington where he was named Assistant Adjutant General. Having survived the war, in which his last act was to accept the surrender of Confederate generals Edmund Kirby Smith and Richard Taylor, Canby met his death at the hands of the Madoc Indians in 1873.

Except for its geographical position, the Territory of New Mexico is not worth a quarter of the blood and treasure expended in its conquest. As a field for military operations it possesses not a single element, except in the multiplicity of its defensible positions. The indispensable element, food, cannot be relied on."

Brig. Gen. Sibley after his return from New Mexico.

" eneral Canby was an officer of vj great merit. He was naturally studious, and inclined to the law. There have been in the army but very few, if any, officers who took as much interest in reading and digesting every act of Congress... His knowledge gained in this way made him a most valuable staff officer."

Ulysses S. Grant, in his "Memoirs. "

New Mexico Campaign july i86i

Texans had long coveted New Mexico. In July 1861 a small force of Texans entered New Mexico Territory and occupied Fort Fillmore. Later, at San Augustin Spring, they captured a much larger force of U.S. regulars. A Territory of Arizona was set up, and a delegate sent to Richmond.

This was the beginning of a dream. To make it a reality, Confederate Brigadier General Henry H. Sibley raised a 3,500-strong brigade, concentrating it at Fort Thorn. On February 7, 1862, Sibley's force started north. Posted at Fort Craig was Colonel Edward R. S. Canby and 3,800 Federal soldiers.

The Confederates closed on Fort Craig on February 16, but found they were outnumbered, and the Federals prepared. Sibley bypassed Fort Craig by fording the Rio Grande south of the fort, and continuing north. On February 21, Canby rushed a third of his command to hold Valverde Ford. Seizing the initiative, the Federals crossed the Rio Grande, and compelled the Confederates to fall back to the river. The fighting escalated as both sides committed reinforcements. The Federals held their own until a Confederate charge captured a battery on Canby's left. This turned the tide and Canby's force recrossed the Rio Grande and withdrew into Fort Craig. The Confederates had opened the door to Santa Fe and Colorado.

Leaving Canby's troops to "wither on the vine," the Confederates occupied Albuquerque and Santa Fe. Their next objective was Fort Union, long the major Federal supply depot in New Mexico. But, by the time the Confederates resumed the advance, reinforcements from the Denver mining camps, led by Colonel John Slough, had reached Fort Union. On March 22, Slough led 1,342 men from the fort toward Confederate-held Santa Fe.

On hearing of the Federal advance, some 400 Confederates took to the field. On

-july 1862

7) July 3-41861: Small force of Confederates, led byLt Col. John Baylor, occupies Fort Bliss

Oj July 27: Baylor compels Major Isaac Lynde to surrender his force at San Augustin Spring

Feb 7-20: Sibley marches north up Rio Grande

Feb 21: Federals defeated at ^ Valverde

Feb 23: Sibley bypasses Canby at Fort Craig and marches north

(jq) March 28: Scurry defeats Slough's

^^^ Federals at Glorieta Pass, but after raid «! I their supplies at Johnson's Ranch, Confederates withdraw to Santa Fe

(fj) April 11-12: Sibley evacuates Sante Fi, then Albuquerque

@ April 17-25: Sibley crosses Rio Grande, makes 100-mile detour to bypass Foil Craig, returning to the river 40 miles south of the fort

(K3) July 23: Confederates withdraw from Mesilla and retreat toTexas if

/AAA

Texas Camft j Feb 20 to 211

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