I

@ 10-11.30am: Confederates assault Shermanand.McCleraandon the Hamburg - Purdey road, driving back Union right flank

8-9.30am: Wallace's and Hurlbut's divisions march to the front

9-I0.30am: Johnston, hearing that his ^— right flank is threatened, orders Chalmers' and Jackson's brigades to assault Federal left, with Breckinridge in support f^s 6.30-9am; Johnston maneuvers eight brigades to overrun Prentiss's camps, routing the Union division

/O) 7-1 Oam: Sherman's division repulses ^^ Confederates, inflicting heavy casualties.

8-9.30am: Wallace's and Hurlbut's divisions march to the front

9-I0.30am: Johnston, hearing that his ^— right flank is threatened, orders Chalmers' and Jackson's brigades to assault Federal left, with Breckinridge in support

Shiloh APRIL 7 1862

Shiloh's first day of slaughter also witnessed the deadi of the Confederate leader, General Johnston, who fell at mid-afternoon, struck down by a stray bullet while directing the action on the Confederate right. At dusk, the advance division of General Buell's Federal Army of the Ohio reached Pittsburg Landing, and crossed the river to file into line on the Union left during the night. Buell's arrival, plus the timely appearance of a reserve division from Grant's army, led by Major General Lewis Wallace, fed over 22,500 reinforcements into the Union lines. On April 7, Grant renewed the fighting with an aggressive counterattack.

Taken by surprise, General Beauregard managed to rally 30,000 of his badly disorganized Confederates, and mounted a tenacious defense. Inflicting heavy casualties on the Federals, Beauregard's troops temporarily halted the determined Union advance. However, strength in numbers provided Grant with a decisive advantage. By mid-afternoon, as waves of fresh Federal troops swept forward, pressing the exhausted Confederates back to Shiloh Church, Beauregard realized his armies' peril and ordered a retreat. During the night, the Confederates withdrew, greatly disorganized, to their fortified stronghold at Corinth. Possession of the grisly battlefield passed to the victorious Federals, who were satisfied to simply reclaim Grant's camps and make an exhausted bivouac among the dead.

General Johnston's massive and rapid concentration at Corinth, and surprise attack on Grant at Pittsburg Landing, had presented the Confederacy with an opportunity to reverse the course of the war. The aftermath, however, left the invading Union forces still poised to carry out the capture of the Corinth rail junction. Shiloh's awesome toll of 23,746 men killed, wounded, or missing brought a shocking realization to both sides that the war would not end quickly.

You gentlemen have had your way today, but it will be very different tomorrow. You'll see. Buell will effect a junction with Grant tonight and we'll turn the tables on you in the morning. You'll see."

Gen. Prentiss prophesying the events of April 7 to his Confederate captors, April 6.

The Union counterattack on the morning of April 7 Although this photograph (below) was not taken until a

(above). Although elated with their success of the few days after the fighting at Shiloh had come to an previous day, Confederates were exhausted and end, it gives a very accurate indication of the position demoralized by the arrival of Union reinforcements. of the large 24-pound siege guns used by Grant and

Furthermore, their line was weakened by the Buell during the battle. The guns are directed toward withdrawal of Polk's division the previous evening, the location of the final Confederate assault which took when the retirement order had been misinterpreted. place during the afternoon of April 7

The Union counterattack on the morning of April 7 Although this photograph (below) was not taken until a

(above). Although elated with their success of the few days after the fighting at Shiloh had come to an previous day, Confederates were exhausted and end, it gives a very accurate indication of the position demoralized by the arrival of Union reinforcements. of the large 24-pound siege guns used by Grant and

Furthermore, their line was weakened by the Buell during the battle. The guns are directed toward withdrawal of Polk's division the previous evening, the location of the final Confederate assault which took when the retirement order had been misinterpreted. place during the afternoon of April 7

Our troops are very much in the condition of a lump of sugar thoroughly soaked in water - preserving its original shape, though ready to dissolve."

. / ^ April 7,7-9am: Wallace drives Confederates from Jones field ^

^ April 1,7-9am: Grant and Buell advance. Skirmishing light as majority of Confederates retired south of Hamburg/Purdy road during night

(<j~2) April 00pm: McCook slams

^^ iitf^Bragg at Water Oak Pond. -," C~ y>fetnrega.rd ço.uRtèraiîacks, halting^'' McCook, -Wtl^rsJi^^&rfTCSarej Beauregard is forcedto retire

April7.00pm:Wallace,with5,800men, moves to support Sherman at Sh iloh 'Q Church

April 6-7, night: Buell's ijoops file irt on — Union left;Grictendefi'deploysin center, with McCook in support

April 6-7;, night: Nelson fihiied. across

^ river. Feiera^unboats fire into captured Federal/tarrips<

. / ^ April 7,7-9am: Wallace drives Confederates from Jones field ^

^ April 1,7-9am: Grant and Buell advance. Skirmishing light as majority of Confederates retired south of Hamburg/Purdy road during night

April 7,9-1 lam: Nelson advances //' through Wicker's and Sarah BellVfields, Crittenden advances in center', but stalled in "hornet's nest" ' //-

April 7,9-1 lam: BreçlSmridge affd

^^ Hardee counterattack Xe&m's right flank and force Fédérai left back. bta: Wicker's field

April 7,9-llam: McCook crosses ^^ Tilghman Branch and engages Breckinridge's left

April 7,10.30-noon: Sherman^ McClernand and Hurftiut cross Tilghman Branch and join Wallace in fighting against,Polk and .Bragg ok Confederate

' Pflahked by jtffe&'aRd-foj^^retim^ ,.Hkmburg^Bu%road

¡<pj"\ April 7, noon-2.O0pm: Reinforced, Nelson and Crittenden advance, forcing Beauregard's right flank to retreat south to Hamburg/Purdy road

(<j~2) April 00pm: McCook slams

^^ iitf^Bragg at Water Oak Pond. -," C~ y>fetnrega.rd ço.uRtèraiîacks, halting^'' McCook, -Wtl^rsJi^^&rfTCSarej Beauregard is forcedto retire

: (Ti) ^P1^ ^ ^ ■ 4pm: Breckinridge, supported by massed artillery south of Shiloh Branch ravine; checks Union advance, and Confederates retire from field. Federals reclaim possession of the field and bivouac

Upper Mississippi Valley march 3 - june 61862

With General Grant advancing up the Tennessee River, General Halleck sent Major General John Pope with 18,000 men overland against New Madrid, Missouri and Island Number 10, where 7,000 Confederate troops and strong shore batteries barred passage of the Mississippi River.

Supported on the river by Flag Officer Foote's gunboat and mortar boat flotilla, Pope coordinated a month-long amphibious operation, capturing both southern bastions, nearly 7,000 Confederate troops, heavy artillery, and considerable quantities of ammunition and supplies. The Union victory cleared the way for Federal naval operations to proceed downstream to Fort Pillow, Tennessee.

On April 11, Halleck arrived at Pittsburg Landing, superseding Grant (placed second-in-command) in direct command of the Union invasion. On April 29, Halleck's force, totaling 123,000 men in three Union armies (under Generals Buell, Pope and George H. Thomas), headed inland to seize the heavily fortified rail junction at Corinth.

Fresh from the tragic and bitter Shiloh experience, both sides displayed a reluctance to engage in pitched battle. Waging a classic campaign of offensive entrenchment, Halleck advanced cautiously against General Beauregard, who managed to stall the Union juggernaut for a month. Finally, with half his reported 112,000 men listed sick or absent, low on fresh water and supplies, and facing annihilation, Beauregard evacuated Corinth and withdrew into central Mississippi.

On May 30, Halleck took possession of Corinth, securing Union control of the Confederacy's sole east-west link railroad, the Memphis & Charleston, and furthering the Union objective of reclaiming the lower Mississippi Valley.

Meanwhile, upstream from Fort Pillow, the Federal flotilla lay anchored off Plum Run Bend. On May 10, Captain James E. Montgomery's makeshift Confederate River Defense Fleet unexpectedly appeared and boldly attacked the Federal fleet. In a brief action, the Confederate boats - lacking heavy armament and armor and outfitted instead with wood and cotton-bale armor -rammed and sank two of the big Union ironclads. During the affair, four of Montgomery's eight boats were damaged, forcing him to withdraw to Fort Pillow and then Memphis.

After enduring a month-long bombardment, followed by Beauregard's abandonment of Corinth, the Confederates

Buffington Island Battlefield Map

Cairo

^Columbus/

"Tort Donelson

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