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Dorn, decisively defeated, withdrew. The Union lost 1,270; the Confederates about 2,000.

The dramatic Federal successes, which began with General Grant's capture of forts Henry and Donelson in February 1862, shifted attention and resources away from the Trans-Mississippi theater. After Van Dorn led reinforcements across the Mississippi, Confederate Major General Thomas C. Hindman raised an army of 11,000 men, and in early December moved against Brigadier General James G. Blunt's 7,000 men near Fayetteville, hoping to defeat them before 3,000 men arrived from Springfield under Brigadier General Francis J. Herron.

When his own movement proved slower than Herron's, Hindman left a small force to hold Blunt, and moved instead against Herron. But rather than attacking, he. assumed a defensive position at Prairie Grove. Herron's assaults on December proved ineffective, nor did Blunt's arrival later give the Union victory. Athough the: battle ended in a draw, Hindipan witlv- . drew, leaving Arkansas vulnerable to subsequent Federal advances.

Silent and sad. The vulture and the wolf have now communion, and the dead, friends and foes, sleep in the same lonely grave."

Gen. Samuel Ryan Curtis after Pea Ridge.

Qj Early March; FedtrjJ arttiy undtr Gcil

Samuel Curtis deploys ¿long Little Sugar Creek

Van Dorn's comb hied loiees typass die: —' .strong tjiion petition 1» li>l]u',nng [he1: Ccjiunmlk' dcmciT: The march exhausts hLsmen ;uid hundreds ui op but ea iij- i. r l c

Mitre]] 7: Van Ikjni teaches Federal ini'iv rear.'hiti-dcitiiediy Uttkrii scout*

. ^ ■■ March 7: Gmus^r.idliu'lv shifts his trbrtps - fi 0 in [ 11 c i r in [ic ;i c h c d d efe ] ci iCi .

Ihciirjoxvrdirated . G a ifcrieiatii attacks .to his righi.flank and /

• Carthage cassville

A fie 7 defeating Gen. Nathaniel Lyon and (Occupying Lexington in 1-S6Í, Sterling Pric&ivin tared in Southern Mis son w. To reve nge tb ese. de feats,, a Union army tin dtr : Gén. Samuel Ryan Curtís was S:ent to tfye~ region early in IS 62, Outnumbered, Price retreated .until reitifórced.by oyer all. Confederate commander Eatbtyan Dorn. Van fforñ Ted^his--f^zces jzg0 -

converged at Pea Ridge (see map left).

Ben McCulloch (below) was so popular that when he was felled by a shot through the heart the fighting effectiveness of his troops evaporated, many of them simply wandering from the field, stupefied with grief.

YgY -Confederates under McCulioch attack and succeed in pushing back Osterhaus

After the death of Brig. Gen. Lyon at Wilson Creek on August 10, his command was passed to Maj. Gen. Samuel Ryan Curtis (above), called by Lincoln 'honest, capable, faithful and patriotic'. Much of the credit for Curtis's victory at Pea Ridge went to Maj. Gen. Halleck, though the successful strategy was entirely Curtis's idea.

YgY -Confederates under McCulioch attack and succeed in pushing back Osterhaus

Davis counterattacks from the east. McCulioch is killed and Confederates flee the field

Price and Van Dom attack Carr's Federals. Carr is driven back but by the evening Confederates are running low on ammunition

March 8, early am: Osterhaus, Asboth and ^ Davis move to join Carr

©Curtis assaults the Confederates near Elkhom Tavern. Union charge led by Sigel routs the Confederates

Hoping to stall Blunt's force long enough to decisively defeat Francis Herron's small division which was advancing from Missouri, Confederate general Thomas Hindman assumed a defensive position at Prairie Grove and awaited the attack of the Federals (right). The engagement began on December 7 with a number of ineffective Federal assaults which Hindman was able to repulse. With the approach of Blunt on December 8, Hindman found himself attacked in front and flank by the converging Federal divisions. Forced to retreat in freezing conditions Hindman's conscripts soon began to desert and the Confederate force simply evaporated.

Shiloh APRIL 6 1862

With the loss of Forts Henry and Donelson in February, General Johnston withdrew his disheartened Confederate forces into west Tennessee, northern Mississippi and Alabama to reorganize. In early March, General Halleck responded by ordering General Grant to advance his Union Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River.

Occupying Pittsburg Landing, Grant entertained no thought of a Confederate attack. Halleck's instructions were that following the arrival of General Buell's Army of the Ohio from Nashville, Grant would advance south in a joint offensive to seize the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, the Confederacy's only east-west all-weather supply route that linked the lower Mississippi Valley to cities on the Confederacy's east coast.

Assisted by his second-in-command, General Beauregard, Johnston shifted his scattered forces and concentrated almost 55,000 men around Corinth. Strategically located where the Memphis & Charleston crossed the Mobile &C Ohio Railroad, Corinth was the western Confederacy's most important rail junction.

On April 3, realizing Buell would soon reinforce Grant, Johnston launched an offensive with his newly christened Army of the Mississippi. Advancing upon Pittsburg Landing with 43,938 men, Johnston planned to surprise Grant, cut his army off from retreat to the Tennessee River, and drive the Federals west into the swamps of Owl Creek.

Union troops flee toward the Tennessee River during the Confederate assault (below). The shock to the unprepared Federals was great and though many units offered fierce resistance, others quickly buckled and sought to escape on board the army transports.

Union troops flee toward the Tennessee River during the Confederate assault (below). The shock to the unprepared Federals was great and though many units offered fierce resistance, others quickly buckled and sought to escape on board the army transports.

In the gray light of dawn, April 6, a small Federal reconnaissance discovered Johnston's army deployed for battle astride the Corinth road, just a mile beyond the forward Federal camps. Storming forward, the Confederates found the Federal position unfortified. Johnston had achieved almost total surprise. By mid-morning, the Confederates seemed within easy reach of victory, overrunning one frontline Union division and capturing its camp. However, stiff resistance on the Federal right entangled Johnston's brigades in a savage fight around Shiloh Church. Throughout the day, Johnston's army hammered the Federal right, which gave ground but did not break. Casualties upon this brutal killing ground were immense.

Meanwhile, Johnston's flanking attack stalled in front of Sarah Bell's peach orchard and the dense oak thicket labeled the "hornet's nest" by the Confederates. Grant's left flank withstood Confederate assaults for seven crucial hours before being forced to yield ground in the late afternoon. Despite inflicting heavy casualties and seizing ground, the Confederates only drove Grant towards the river, instead of away from it. The Federal survivors established a solid front before Pittsburg Landing and repulsed the last Confederate charge as dusk ended the first day of fighting.

(j^) April 6,4.55-6.30am: Federal patrol discovers Confederates in Fraley Field. Federals skirmish, then fall back f^s 6.30-9am; Johnston maneuvers eight brigades to overrun Prentiss's camps,

(^g^ Noon-2.30pm: Sherman and McClernand counterattack, drivii^ Confederates south, but weakened \ losses, Federals with draw across Tilghman Branch Johnston sends five brigades to attack

Sherman's left flank. Sherman falls back (^q) Noon-3.30pm: Gibson's Confederates on McClernand's division i ^a routing the Union division

/O) 7-1 Oam: Sherman's division repulses ^^ Confederates, inflicting heavy casualties.

(\ 3 j :3-5.30pm:; Massed Confederate artillery forces Federal .artillery to withdraw from the center; Wallace and Prentiss's troops surrounded and surrender

(14) 5.30-6.30pm: Confederates attempt to cross Dill Branch raving and assault Union line, but are repulsed and retire . into capturfed Union camps

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