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Confederate'General Albert Sidney Johnston (left) had sewed m the p.S. Army during the Black.Hawk and Mexican ufais. Commissioned a full general in the Confederate Army at the outbreak'of war he enjoyed considerable popularity and his death at Shiloh was counted a national disaster.

20 Miles

Jan 17: Marching via Columbia, Thomas reaches Logan's Cross Roads

Jan 20-26: Crittenden retreats to Gainesboro

<fo) April 11: Morgan, ordered to seize Cumberland Ford. To defend the Gap, Confederates rush two brigades to Chattanooga i^Pl^ June 4: Union troops advance from Fayetteville and rout Confederates at Sweeden's Cove

June 7: Union troops cross mountains and the Tennessee and bombard Chattanooga

Jan 19-20, dawn: In battle of Logan's Crossroads (MillSprings), Confederates attack Thomas's camps, but are defeated and flee across Cumberland River

June 17-18: Confederates evacuate Cumberland Gap; Morgan occupies it that a Union attack was imminent, Crittenden preempted the strike with an assault at Logan's Crossroads (right) during the early hours of January 19. Though initially successful, the Confederate attack wavered when Zollicoffer was killed in the confusion. Reinforced, Thomas's Federals were able to break the Confederate left. The Confederates hurriedly retreated across the Cumberland, abandoning their camp and supplies. Union casualties numbered 261, Confederate S33.

The country must now be roused to make the greatest effort that it will be called upon to make during the war. No matter what the sacrifice may be, it must be made, and without loss of time... All the resources of the Confederacy are now needed for the defense of Tennessee."

Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston.

Jan 17: Marching via Columbia, Thomas reaches Logan's Cross Roads

Jan 20-26: Crittenden retreats to Gainesboro

<fo) April 11: Morgan, ordered to seize Cumberland Ford. To defend the Gap, Confederates rush two brigades to Chattanooga i^Pl^ June 4: Union troops advance from Fayetteville and rout Confederates at Sweeden's Cove that a Union attack was imminent, Crittenden preempted the strike with an assault at Logan's Crossroads (right) during the early hours of January 19. Though initially successful, the Confederate attack wavered when Zollicoffer was killed in the confusion. Reinforced, Thomas's Federals were able to break the Confederate left. The Confederates hurriedly retreated across the Cumberland, abandoning their camp and supplies. Union casualties numbered 261, Confederate S33.

Though a firm disciplinarian and an tactician, Major Gen. Don Carlos Buell (right) was a slow and cautious soldier who repeatedly resisted Lincoln's calls for a Federal advance. Methodical and reserved, Buell was not a popular leader, but he did believe that popularity was an essential characteristic for military effeciency and success.

June 7: Union troops cross mountains and the Tennessee and bombard Chattanooga

¿jgN June 6-11: Two Union brigades force their way through Big Creek and Rogers gaps and enter Powell River Valley

June 17-18: Confederates evacuate Cumberland Gap; Morgan occupies it

Jan 19-20, dawn: In battle of Logan's Crossroads (MillSprings), Confederates attack Thomas's camps, but are defeated and flee across Cumberland River

On January 19, a second battle was fought in the region; a Confederate army led by Major General George B. Crittenden had established a fortified camp at Beech Grove on the Cumberland, opposite Mill Springs. On January 1st, Federal Brigadier General George H. Thomas marched his division through heavy rain from Lebanon reaching Logan's Cross Roads on the 17th.

With the Cumberland in flood, Critten den ordered a night march and a dawn attack on the Federal camps, hoping to beat Thomas's forces before they concen trated. The Confederates surprised the Federals, but faltered when popular Brig adier General Felix K. Zollicoffer was killed. This gained the Federals a respite, and Thomas brought up reinforcements. After a desperate fight, the Federals turned Crittenden's left flank and the Confed erates fled across the river. Middle Creek had prised the Confederates out of eastern Kentucky, and the battle of Mill Springs had breached Johnston's Kentucky line.

It was April 11 before the Union followed up their victory. Brigadier General George W. Morgan, leading his Seventh Division, was sent to capture Cumberland Gap and free East Tennessee. The Confederates had fortified the Wilderness Road route to the Gap. Favoring an indirect approach, Morgan ordered one brigade to advance via Big Creek Gap while other forces threatened Chattanooga. Confederates were rushed to Chattanooga, but realizing they were outflanked by the Federal column, they evacuated Cumberland Gap on June 17. The next day Morgan occupied the strategic gateway to East Tennessee.

Fort Henry and Donelson Campaign febuary 1862

Prodded by Abraham Lincoln's call for a general movement of the army and navy against the "insurgent forces," General Halleck ordered General Grant to take Fort Henry, the sole Confederate bastion defending the Tennessee River.

Mounting only 17 cannon and constructed on low ground that was partially flooded, Fort Henry was unexpectedly weak. In view of these limitations, the fort's commander, Brigadier General Lloyd Tilghman, decided to save the major part of his Confederate garrison by sending all but some artillerists, and a few sick, overland to the stronger Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River.

On February 6, as Grant's 15,000 troops slogged south to position themselves for the attack on Fort Henry, a flotilla of seven Federal gunboats, led by Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote, steamed forward and pounded the fort into submission, thus opening the lower Tennessee River to Union control.

Fort Henry's collapse forced General A.S. Johnston, supreme Confederate commander in the West, to evacuate middle Kentucky and fall back on Nashville. Johnston sent 15,000 men under Brigadier General John B. Floyd, to reinforce and defend Fort Donelson. On

The commander of the naval squadron in the attacks on Forts Henry and Donelson, Andrew Hull Foote (below), was a strict disciplinarian who, nevertheless, enjoyed the respect of the men who served under him. Foote was injured when a Confederate shell from Fort Donelson crashed into the pilot-house of his flagship, the St. Louis, disabling the ship and making her an easy target for the rebel gunners.

fort Henry

February 6, 1862

and Foote's seven gunboats steamed upstream to pour fire into the partially flooded fort, the Confederate commander, Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman, decided to surrender, and evacuate his garrison east to Fort Donelson. Slowed by rain-soaked terrain, McClernand's Federal division was unable to block the Confederate garrison's retreat (see map left).

"T7 ^ y°ur cartr^§e boxes, quick, and JL get into line. The enemy is trying to escape and he must not be permitted to do so."

Grant to McClernand during the attempted Confederate breakout.

McCLERXAND

fort Henry

February 6, 1862

and Foote's seven gunboats steamed upstream to pour fire into the partially flooded fort, the Confederate commander, Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman, decided to surrender, and evacuate his garrison east to Fort Donelson. Slowed by rain-soaked terrain, McClernand's Federal division was unable to block the Confederate garrison's retreat (see map left).

1J Feb 4-5,4.30am: Grant begins to disembark McClernand's division

; Feb 5, night: Majorit)' of Smith's division — lands on west side of river

2 Feb 6,11am: McClernand, supported by brigade of C.F. Smith's division, advances toward Fort Henty

' g Grant occupies Fort Henry

Feb 11: Grant pushes advance elements of army to within seven miles of Fort Donelson

Febll: Foote sends three gunboats on raid up Tennessee. Remainder of flotilla returns to Ohio River to,aidseiziireof o Fort Donelin c,

February 12, Grant marched overland and promptly invested Donelson. Late on the 13th, Foote's gunboat flotilla arrived, together with a fresh division under Brigadier General Lewis Wallace. On February 14, Confederate shore batteries . decisively repulsed an attack by Foote's gunboats. As a fierce winter storm gripped the region, Grant was forced to tighten the - investment.

In the bitterly cold dawn of February 15, while Grant was absent at a meeting with Foote on his flagship, Floyd's Confederates ¿Stormed forth from their snow-covered " trenches in a devastating surprise assault On Grant's right. Confederate musketry and artillery fire hammered General McClernarul's division, forcing it to retreat over a mile. By noon, the Confederate 'fésé:aij)e: route down the Charlotte Road to

; Feb 5, night: Majorit)' of Smith's division — lands on west side of river

2 Feb 6,11am: McClernand, supported by brigade of C.F. Smith's division, advances toward Fort Henty

Feb 11: Grant pushes advance elements of army to within seven miles of Fort Donelson

Febll: Foote sends three gunboats on raid up Tennessee. Remainder of flotilla returns to Ohio River to,aidseiziireof o Fort Donelin c,

1 mile

; 7 J Febl6, dawn: In Dover, Grant accepts "unconditional surrender" of Donelson

{ 3* Febl5,1pm: Grant arrives; realizing ^ Confederates are trying to escape, orders attack on entire Confederate front

( 4) Febl5, pm: As Confederates retire into Donelson, Wallace and McClernand attack and regain lost ground

Febl5, pm: Smith advances along

Hickman Creek: seizes outer Confederate entrenchments, but his advance halted. Fighting ends f^) Febl5-16, night: Confederates surrender. Floyd and Pillow escape with about 2,500 men. Forrest leads cavalry to safety across Lick Creek

; 7 J Febl6, dawn: In Dover, Grant accepts "unconditional surrender" of Donelson

1 mile

Nashville was opened. A great victory had been won. However, indecision now gripped Floyd and his subordinate, General Pillow, and the Confederate troops were ordered back into their fortifications. Grant now counterattacked, closing up the gap on the right with Wallace's division, while an assault by Brigadier General Charles F. Smith's division seized a portion of the outer line of Confederate trenches on the left, before night ended combat.

Continued animosity and confusion among the Confederate generals, together with the arrival of strong Federal reinforcements, led to Donelson's unconditional surrender on February 16. The entire Confederate heartland was now vulnerable to Federal invasion.

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