Second Manassas Bull Run Campaign Phase

In the sweltering heat of late July, 1862, a new threat to the Confederacy loomed out of Northern Virginia. Federal General John Pope massed the beaten elements of the 1862 Valley Campaign and started south toward Culpeper Court House. Lee detested Pope's bombastic proclamations against Southern civilians, and dispatched Stonewall Jackson to supress Pope's Army of Virginia.

In early August, Jackson gathered his 22,000 troops at Orange and Gordonsville, but soon advanced to strike at an isolated Federal corps led by General Nathaniel Banks. Crossing the Rapidan River, Jackson attacked Banks at Cedar Mountain on August 9. The battle hung in the balance, but Jackson's superior numbers eventually drove Banks from the field. Pope reinforced Banks, forcing the Confederates back across the Rapidan. Jackson had 1,400 casualties at Cedar Mountain; Banks incurred 2,500.

When Lee learned that McClellan would join forces with Pope, the Confederate general united Longstreet's command with Jackson's to strike at Pope. Lee and Pope sparred for two weeks along the Rapidan, and then the Rappahannock rivers. At one point Lee's cavalry, under J.E.B. Stuart, raided Pope's line of communications and supplies, attacking Catlett's Station on a stormy August night. Unable to burn the rain-soaked railroad bridges, Stuart consoled himself with the capture of Pope's headquarters' equipment, including the Federal commander's dress uniform.

On August 25, Stonewall Jackson marched 54 miles in 36 hours in a daring move against Pope's rear. Turning Pope's right flank, Jackson captured and burned Pope's supply depot at Manassas Junction. Pope moved to isolate Jackson, but the Confederates eluded his trap by marching five miles north, taking cover in the woods and behind an unfinished railroad embankment north of the Warrenton Turnpike. Jackson had chosen his ground well; the stage was set for batde as the opposing armies converged on Manassas.

Union troops charging the left flank of Jackson's army at Cedar Mountain (below). Successive Union attacks had so weakened Jackson's left that collapse seemed imminent. Confederate hopes were revived by the timely arrival of Ewell's artillery and the commencement of a devastating bombardment.

Jackson ordered forward the "Stonewall Brigade"... He waved his hat and told them remember they were the Stonewall Brigade, and with a shout they rushed forward and hurled back the insolent foe."

A Confederate captain at Cedar Mountain.

Union troops charging the left flank of Jackson's army at Cedar Mountain (below). Successive Union attacks had so weakened Jackson's left that collapse seemed imminent. Confederate hopes were revived by the timely arrival of Ewell's artillery and the commencement of a devastating bombardment.

/^p) Aug 8: Jackson advances across the Rapldan from Orange and Gordonsville

6 miles;

(Aug, 9: Jackson defeats Banks at Cedar V< ■■■. Mountain, but Federal reinforcements ..force him .back across the Rapidan f^S Aug 20: After reuniting Jackson and ^^ Longstreet, Lee pursues Pope to the Rappahannock River i Aug 22:Moving.up the Rappahannock, '^'/Coajfederaies spar with Sigel's Federals at <<$V FreeiaaMjord arid Sulphur Springs

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