February 21. 1862
March 26, the Federal vanguard, under Major John Chivington, met and defeated the Confederates in a running fight in Apache Canyon.
March 28 was a decisive day for the campaign: the reinforced Confederates headed east, but as they debouched from Glorieta Pass, they encountered Slough's force. A desperate battle ensued. About 5 pm, the Federals disengaged and returned to their camp at Kozlowski's Ranch. But that was not the end. Earlier in the day Chivington with 490 men had crossed the mountain and destroyed 80 Confederate supply waggons at Johnson's Ranch. This daring Federal raid destroyed a dream.
As a result of the raid, the Confederates retreated to Santa Fe. On July 23 they evacuated Mesilla and began the 700-mile retreat to San Antonio, Texas.
A graduate of West Point, Brig. Gen.
Henry Hopkins Sibley (right) had gained considerable experience of the Southwest when a major in the U.S. army before the war. Though in favor of the expedition, Jefferson Davis was unable to offer any material support and Sibley was responsible for raising and equipping his force.
A fierce battle was the result of a meeting between a detachment of H.H. Sibley's Confederates under Col. W.R. Scurry and the Federal command of Col. John Slough, at Pigeon's Ranch in Glorieta Pass. Outnumbered and on the defensive the Federals fell back. Meanwhile, at Johnson's Ranch to the rear, Scurry's wagon train was destroyed by Maj. J.M. Chivington who had led 400 men over the mountains. The destruction of these supplies would necessitate a Confederate withdrawal southward along the Rio Grande (see map above).
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