Recovery and reconstruction

Fighting in the American Civil War included more than 10,000 recorded battles, engagements, and skirmishes. Virginia served as the stage for more of those than any other state - some 2,200; Tennessee ranked next with about 1,500. At least 620,000 soldiers and sailors died during the war, more than 365,000 of them Federals. Microbes wreaked more havoc than bullets did, in an age of primitive notions regarding sanitation and medical science. Postwar calculations by the Federal Surgeon General, for instance, tabulated 45,000 Northern deaths from dysentery and diarrhea; 20,000 from pneumonia; and more than 9,000 by drowning or other non-battle accidents.

Political consequences of the conflict wrought fundamental changes in the nature

Defeated Confederates went home to face an ordeal of a different sort in a shattered land bereft of food and sustenance. Military 'Reconstruction' lasted more than a decade in some places in the South. (Public domain)

Defeated Confederates went home to face an ordeal of a different sort in a shattered land bereft of food and sustenance. Military 'Reconstruction' lasted more than a decade in some places in the South. (Public domain)

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