After two days of intense combat in the Wilderness, Grant had lost about 18,000 men, Lee perhaps 8,000 (Confederate casualties for the last year of the war are difficult to ascertain with any precision). Wilderness was the only major battle in the Virginia Theater in which an army had both of its flanks shattered. Grant had vivid, immediate proof that fighting Lee would be nothing at all like toying with Generals Bragg and Johnston and Pemberton in the west. Nothing daunted, the Federal Commander-in-Chief calmly determined
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