Contents

Introduction 4

Chronology

The antebellum experience, 1830-61 6 The key elements of field fortification 8

Semi-permanent field fortifications • Outer field fortifications

The war in the East, 1861-64 26

Defenses of Washington, May-July 1861« Big Bethel, 1861 • Manassas, 1861-62 Extension of the Washington defenses, 1861-64 • The Peninsula Campaign, 1862 • Battle of Williamsburg, 1862

The Richmond defenses, 1861-65 35

Siege of Suffolk, April I I-May 4, 1863

The western campaign, 1862-64 38

Siege of Chattanooga, 1863 • Siege of Knoxville, 1863 • Struggle for Atlanta, 1864 • Siege of Savannah, 1864

War in the East, 1864-65 43

The Confederate attack on Washington, July I 1-12, 1864 • The Wilderness, 1864 • Spotsylvania, 1864

Bloody Angle, 1864 • Cold Harbor, 1864

The fortifications of Petersburg, 1864-65 48

Life in the Petersburg fortifications

The fate of the fortifications 58 Visiting the sites today 61 Further reading and research 63

Index

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