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to commemorating the Richmond battlefields, began to erect markers to commemorate the battlefields and earthworks around Richmond, Virginia. Most prominent among the members of this association were James Ambler Johnston and Dr. Douglas Southall Freeman, the eminent biographer of George Washington and Robert E. Lee. The work of Dr. Freeman and the Association ultimately led to the foundation of the Battlefield Parks Corporation in 1930, the purchase of battlefield lands, including that containing forts Harrison, Gilmer, and Alexander, and the establishment of Richmond National Battlefield Park in 1936.
Across the James River, the Petersburg National Battlefield Association was organized in 1898 with Stith Boiling, a Confederate veteran, as its president. In 1926 the Petersburg National Military Park was finally established, and in 1962 it was transformed into the Petersburg National Battlefield. Preservation work has continued at this site in recent years. In April 1998, Cultural Resources GIS conducted a systematic Global Positioning Systems survey of the principal artillery earthworks on the Fish Hook line, including forts Urmston, Conahey, Fisher, Welch, Gregg, Wheaton, and the Siege Battery. Assessment of these sites continues today.
Farther west, the remains of Fort Rosecrans were included in the Stones River National Military Park established on March 3, 1927. This site became the Stones River National Battlefield on April 22, 1960. In Nashville, Tennessee, the Union army abandoned Fort Negley soon after 1867. During the early 1900s, Nashville's black Republican Party leaders unsuccessfully petitioned Republican presidents to restore the fort. In 1937, the Federal Works Progress Administration restored Fort Negley. However, the fort was allowed to fall into ruins again until interest to restore it began anew with the 1964 Civil War Centennial Celebration. In 1975, Fort Negley was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. In 1980, the Metro Historical Commission placed a historical plaque to note the black involvement in the Civil War and construction of Fort Negley. Local community activist "Ghetto" Joe Kelso pushed for the restoration of the fort until his death. Based on the recommendations made by the Mayor's Advisory Committee in 1994, the Nashville City Council approved $500,000 to begin the restoration of Fort Negley as a historical community and tourist resource. In December 2004, the site was re-opened to the public for the first time in 60 years, complete with walkways and interpretive signage. It is again under restoration, based on plans located in Washington, DC.
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