A star fort, or tenaille fort, was surrounded on the exterior with projecting angles or salients, and was categorized by the number of salients included in its traces, e.g. a fort with six salient angles was referred to as a hexagonal fort. Although they were used quite extensively in earlier wars, star forts fell from favor following disappointing service in the Napoleonic Wars. Most 19th-century engineering manuals had more to say about their disadvantages than their advantages. Flank defense of the ditch was ineffective, and salients could only be defended by oblique fire. Also, the development of the parapet required a garrison too large for the area enclosed by the fortification. Furthermore, salients were vulnerable to enfilade fire and difficult to protect with traverses without severely restricting the number of troops able to defend each face of the fort. Bastion fortifications, particularly those with five bastions, were sometimes referred to as star forts.
A cremaillere line was an indented or serrated continuous line consisting of a series of alternating faces and flanks traced perpendicular to each other. These often linked redans and redoubts together.
Plan of Lunette D in the Mobile defenses supervised by Lieutenant Colonel Victor Von Sheliha, of the Confederate Corps of Engineers, in 1864.This battery stood on the westernmost of the city defenses during the siege begun on March 12, 1865. (Official Military Atlas of the Civil War)
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