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when Confederate forces in Charleston, South Carolina, attacked Fort Sumter, which was under the control of Union forces. This flag flew at Fort Sumter when Union troops resided there early in 1861. There were 33 stars on this Union flag, representing the 33 states in the Union at that time (as compared to the 50 states today). It was the fifteenth official flag of Fort Sumter flag. the United States.

On April 11, 1861, Major Robert Anderson, the man in charge of the Union troops was told to evacuate the fort by General Beauregard of the Confederate army. Anderson refused to evacuate, resulting in a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter headed by Beauregard.

The Confederate troops launched their attack in the early morning hours of April 12. By April 13, the flagstaff and the Union flag had been fired upon and shot down, and the fort was in flames. The Confederates, seeing the flag lowered, believed this signified surrender. As they were rowing a boat over to the fort to evacuate the Union troops, Anderson raised another flagstaff and flag, indicating to the Confederates that this battle was not yet over. It took two more attacks by the Confederates to weaken Anderson and his troops enough to force their surrender. On April 14, the Union flag was lowered and the Confederate palmetto flag was raised. The Union flag would not be raised above Fort Sumter again until April 14, 1865.

Fort Sumter with Confederate colors flying.

palmetto flag of south Carolina

With his surrender at the end of the battle at Fort Sumter, Major Anderson was forced to take the 33-star Union flag down, and the Eighteenth Regiment of South Carolina raised the palmetto flag over Fort Sumter on April 14, 1861. This battle signified the official beginning of the Civil War. white field \ The palmetto flag is so-named because of the central emblem, a palmetto tree, the

South Carolina state tree, and was credited with protecting a South Carolina fort made of palmetto wood in an attack by the British in 1776. The wood proved to be so strong that the cannonballs fired from the British ships could not destroy the fort, and very few people were injured or killed. The palmetto flag continues to be South Palmetto flag. Carolina's state flag today.

the California 100

The California 100 was a group of approximately 100 men from California who were originally from the East Coast. This patriotic group wished to join the Union forces, but didn't want to be stationed in the West. Because of their desire to be in the thick of the action, they contacted the governor of Massachusetts in the summer of 1862 and requested permission to join a new cavalry regiment being formed in Massachusetts. The governor allowed them to join under the condition that they have their own uniform, flag, and equipment. The group agreed and became officially known as Company A of the Second Massachusetts Cavalry, but was popularly referred to as the "California 100."

The California 100 was so successful that many more volunteers from California signed up to fight for the Union. They were a separate company at first, but later joined forces with the California 100 and

California 100 flag.

bear i insignia bear i insignia participated in many battles, including the battles of Winchester, Luray, and Cedar Creek. The California 100 carried a flag with a bear on it, and the bear now flies on the California state flag.

hospital flag

Almost every army unit during the Civil War had a flag to signify alliance and unit. Hospital flags were created in order to signal to wounded soldiers that help was nearby. Field hospitals were usually set up in tents behind the battlefield or in a nearby barn; this allowed wounded soldiers to have quick access to medical know your slang

hospital rat—person who fakes illness attention, and for doctors and nurses to be close by.

The original hospital flag was red; however, this created confusion with the red Confederate flag. Therefore, in 1862, the hospital flag was redesigned as a large, yellow flag, which was later made more distinctive by the addition of a green "H" in the center of the flag. A smaller yellow flag with a green border was used to mark the quickest route to the hospital.

Hospital tents behind Douglas Hospital,Washington, D.C., May 1864.

Hospital tents behind Douglas Hospital,Washington, D.C., May 1864.

j make your own union fort sumter flag what you'll need

* old pillowcase or other material of any light color

* markers, fabric paint, or fabric in red, white, and blue

* paintbrush

H scissors

H pencil/pen

H adhesive/fabric glue

H wooden dowel what to do

1. Cut the pillowcase so you have one side of it (you can use the other to make a different flag if you'd like).

2. Use the diagram provided to help you sketch and color the features of the flag. Notice that the stars were in a different configuration than they are today.

3. Attach your flag to the wooden dowel if you choose to do so, otherwise hang it wherever and however you'd like.

white stars blue background

blue background

* For a star template, please see page 132.

make your own palmetto flag of south Carolina j what you'll need

H old pillowcase or other piece of material in any light color H dark and light brown material (felt works well) H small piece of red material what to do

1. Cut the pillowcase so you have one side (save the other side if you'd like to make another flag).

H wooden dowel H needle and thread or glue/adhesive H scissors H pen/pencil/ruler

H wooden dowel H needle and thread or glue/adhesive H scissors H pen/pencil/ruler

2. Use the dark brown material for the top of the tree and the light brown material for the trunk of the tree. Use the red material for the star. *

3. Using the needle and thread or adhesive, attach the tree and star according to the diagram. You now have a palmetto flag!

4. Use the adhesive or needle and thread to attach the dowel rod; if you decide you don't want to use a dowel, the flag can be hung on a tree, wall, chair, etc.

dark brown

dark brown

* For templates, please see page 130.

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