Ilie Civil War began with an emphasis on modernizing artillery; the introduction of the 12-pdr. Napoleon, followed closely by rifled cannon gave cannoneers greater hitting power at greater ranges, lint once the war had begun, the emphasis shifted to producing weapons quickly and cheaply for the vast armies in the field. Little or no research or experimentation was carried out on developing breechloading weapons or on the indirect fire control such weapons Would need to be effective. The result was that the 12-pdr. Napoleon would continue as the U.S. Army's primary field artillery weapon for many years after the war, It must he admitted, however, that the army's main opponent for decades after the Civil Wat was the Native American, and their forces were notably lacking in artillery. So the Napoleon was sufficient. In 1918, however, the U.S. found themselves dependent on the French for the bulk of their modern field artillery, with the adoption of the French /"n fur the American field artillery.

Where the re was development during the war, it was in organization; the armies centralized their artillery which had been

Gettysburg National Park
The Confederates imported 32 of these Austrian Army 12-pdr, rifled guns in 1062-63. (Gettysburg National Battlefield Park)

assigned by battery to individual brigades at the start of the war. Both armies organized artillery battalions from individual batteries, and gave their commanders higher ranks than field artillerymen had previously held. This allowed for guns to be massed under one director at important actions. Even this organizational development was not universal. For example, at Gettysburg, the Army of Northern Virginia, which had been able to mass guns well at the Second Manassas, was unable actually to get all of its cannon to fire on the

Union line to prepare for Pickett's Charge.

The Confederacy bad another problem it was never fully able to overcome, and that was of the quality of southern-made cannon, f uses, and ammunition. The Union ordnance never faced this problem, instead pouring money into northern foundries that continued to build the nation long after the war was over.

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