The Plates

A1: Imperial Army soldier, 1911

Imperial Army soldiers wore the 1910 regulation uniform to a large extent in the fighting against the revolutionaries in 1911/12. This soldier wears the winter version of the uniform in dark blue cotton; he has the red branch colour of the infantry on his cap and shoulder bars. His cap badge is a gold disc with a dragon design on it, and the three red stripes round the side of his hat show his rank. The rifle he carries is a Austrian Mannilicher, one of several types of rifle imported for use by the Chinese Imperial Army as part of their modernisation programme.

A2: Imperial Army lieutenant in parade uniform, 1911

This officer of the Imperial Army wears the dark blue parade uniform issued in 1910. His rank is indicated by the gold border round his collar and the colour of the stone on his cap badge - white for the lowest ranks, blue for the middle ranks and red for the highest. His epaulettes have a red border to the gold thread and one gold button in the centre, which also indicates his rank. The sword is the one specified in the 1910 regulations, but many variations of this would have been in use.

A3: Republican Army executioner, 1912

This cavalryman has been given the job of patrolling the streets of a newly captured town with his large 'chopping' sword, ready to behead any peasants that are too troublesome. He wears the old Imperial Army summer uniform with the addition of a star cap badge to replace the Imperial one. His rank of sergeant is shown by the two black stripes on his right sleeve, and his shoulder boards and collar tabs are in the white of the cavalry. The fearsome sword he carries was much used in China at the time - and for many more years - as a means of keeping order, and the display of a few heads in baskets was a good way to stop any riotous behaviour. His pistol is a Mannilicher 1901 model automatic pistol, one of several types of pistol used by the Imperial Chinese Army. A4: Dragon decoration Detail from figure A2's collar.

B1: Warlord soldier of Fengtien Army, 1924

This soldier belongs to the army of Chang Tso-lin, Warlord of Manchuria and northern China during the 1920s. He has a padded grey-green cotton uniform with the red branch colour of the infantry on his collar. The armband is one of the types used by the Fengtien Army and is red over white with no insignia. Collar insignia was not always worn, but this soldier does have them; the numerals are a mixture of Chinese, Arabic and Roman, and in his case indicate that he is soldier 765 of the 1st Battalion, 78th Infantry Regiment, 20th Division. His hat is a fur-lined type worn by the northern Chinese soldiers, with an enamel five-coloured star on it. Black pump shoes were worn by Chinese soldiers throughout the Warlord period. The rifle he has is a Japanese Arisaka 98 model, which was supplied in large numbers to the Fengtien Army.

B2: Soldier of 'Tin Hat Brigade', Chihli Army, 1924

This unit was the only known unit of the Warlord period to wear steel helmets, hence the name 'Tin-Hat'. As one of the Warlord Wu Pei-fu's elite brigades, it was reasonably well equipped and would have been in the forefront of most

Imperial Russian Badge

actions. He wears a Russian version of the Adrian helmet with the Imperial eagle beaten out; these must have found their way to China by a very roundabout route, as did much Warlord equipment. The armband he wears has the black Chinese character rWu' in the centre of a white disc on a dark green linen cloth. His submachine-gun is captured from his enemies in the Fengtien army, which had a large number in use in their units. There were a quite surprising number of submachine-guns in use in Warlord armies; this one is a German MP18/20, which was a modification of the MP18 from World War I. B3: Warlord soldier 1916-28

This typical Warlord soldier from the 1920s is wearing a light khaki cotton uniform of the period. His peaked cap has the usual enamel star and his armband shows that he is a soldier of the so-called 'Nanking' Warlord, Sun Ch'uan-fang, who was defeated by the Nationalist Northern Expedition in 1927. Collar insignia shows that he is solder 854 of the 2nd Battalion, 4th Division, although these numerals could be confusing and were often incomplete. The umbrella he carries is one of the most useful parts of his kit, to keep both sun and rain off his head. Western observers often ridiculed the Chinese soldiers' use of umbrellas, but for an army with few tents they were often the only shelter available. Shoes were always in short supply, so his straw sandals would have been quite normal wear. The rifle he shoulders is a Hanyang 88, a copy of the Mauser Model 88, which was one of the most commonly used rifles in China. B4: Detail of five-coloured star of Warlord Armies

C1: Military policeman of Feng Yu-hsiang's Army, Peking 1924

The soldiers of the 'Christian Warlord' that took over Peking in 1924 wore light brown cotton uniforms. This soldier is a military policeman who is checking cars at a roadblock just after the coup was launched. His goggles are of a type that seem to have been issued to many of the Christian Warlord's men; it does not mean that he was a motorcyclist, and they were useful for keeping dust out of eyes. The collar insignia is in the branch colour of the military police - pink. His armband is black with a white disc with the character 'Feng' in the middle. The Russian Moisin-Nagant rifle was widely issued to the Christian Warlord's Army, and was known as the 'Three-Line Nagant'. His bayonet is fixed in the Russian style. C2: White Russian, Armoured train crewman, Northern China, 1925

White Russian mercenaries were employed by several of the Warlords and their combat experience was highly valued. Many Russians were used to crew the armoured trains that were effectively used as mobile fortresses by all sides. This crewman is resting during a lull in the fighting. He wears the standard uniform of the Warlord armies. His armband shows him to be in the service of Chang Ts'ung-ch'ang, one of the biggest employers of White Russians in China. He smokes a Russian pipe and probably dreams of returning to his homeland. The future of these stateless renegades was very uncertain, and if their Warlord was defeated, as they were by 1928, the future could be very grim. His rifle is a Mannilicher-Schonauer, yet another type in use in China at the time.

RIGHT The same OSS-trained commandos on parade in August 1945. They wear US fatigues and M1 helmets. Besides the Springfield rifles they have M1919/A4 light machine-guns and Thompson submachine-guns. Well-trained Nationalist troops like this would have been swallowed up in the mass of poorer trained recruits that made up the bulk of the Nationalist Army in the Civil War. (National Archives Records Administration)

LEFT An unusual picture of a American OSS (Office of Strategic Studies) instructor training Nationalist Army commandos in China in August 1945. They wear US M1 helmets and fatigues and are armed with a mixture of Springfield rifles and Ml carbines. (National Archives Records Administration)

War Helmet Victory Sign PinPla Uniforms And Equipment

ABOVE Smiling sentries of the Nationalist Army guard at Haichow aerodrome in Kiangsu province in the late 1930s. Their uniforms are the usual mixture of various cotton field caps and shirts with, in this instance, baggy shorts. The soldiers' puttees are wound tightly round the legs and are being worn with leather sandals. Basic equipment is worn, consisting of canvas bandoliers with ammunition for the Mauser 98 rifles they are all armed with. (Popperfoto)

C3: Nationalist soldier, Northern Expedition, 1927

A soldier of the Northern Expedition to defeat the Warlords that began in 1926 and ended with the Nationalist victory in 1928. He wears a light brown cotton uniform with his unit patch on his left breast, and the Nationalist sun emblem on his peaked cap. He carries no rank insignia; the chaotic situation of the campaign meant that military niceties were often ignored. The Mauser pistol he is armed with was one of the favourite weapons of the Warlord period, and the Nationalists used it for the next 20 years. The discipline and training of these early Nationalist troops compared very well with their enemies, the Warlord soldiers, but as the Nationalists were joined by Warlord soldiers who had deserted, this discipline was undermined. C4: Detail Of Nationalist cap badge on C3

D1: Anti-Japanese fighter, Manchuria 1932

This soldier belongs to one of the many volunteer armies formed after the Japanese take-over of Manchuria to continue to fight the invaders with guerrilla warfare. He wears his old Nationalist uniform with a fur-lined surcoat added to combat the extreme cold of the region. His old Nationalist rank of sergeant is shown on his jacket collar insignia - two gold triangles with a black line behind. The cap is an early stiffer version of the normal field cap and is shaped like a French kepi; these were worn by northern Nationalist troops.

BELOW A machine-gun squad of the Communist north-east field army advance in 1947. The mixture of uniform and weaponry shows what diverse sources they came from. Some of them carry Japanese rifles, and the light machine-guns are a mixture of Czech ZB-26s and Canadian-produced Bren guns. Some of the uniforms are dark blue-grey, which soon faded. (Xinghua News Agency)

ABOVE Smiling sentries of the Nationalist Army guard at Haichow aerodrome in Kiangsu province in the late 1930s. Their uniforms are the usual mixture of various cotton field caps and shirts with, in this instance, baggy shorts. The soldiers' puttees are wound tightly round the legs and are being worn with leather sandals. Basic equipment is worn, consisting of canvas bandoliers with ammunition for the Mauser 98 rifles they are all armed with. (Popperfoto)

Bosnian Chest Ammo Pouch

Eight generals of the People's Liberation Army gather for a conference on the outskirts of Peking in 1948. The wide variety of uniforms worn by the generals is striking, with the man fourth from right wearing a Nationalist officer's tunic and the rest a mixture of colours and styles. Note also the lack of any rank insignia apart from the pens in their pockets, which shows they were officers. (Xinghua News Agency)

Hsian Fen Tsao

His flag is the banner of the volunteer army of Feng Chan-hai, one of the foremost anti-Japanese commanders. These guerrilla armies caused the Japanese all sorts of problems for the first years of their occupation in what they renamed 'Manchukuo'; guerrillas numbered up to about 100,000 men. The rifle he carries is the Chinese copy of the German Mauser 88, known in China as the Hanyang 88. D2: Communist guerrilla, Long March, 1934 One of the marchers who set off from the Communist base in 1934 on the journey that would see their numbers reduced from 100,000 to about 10,000 by the end. This fighter is dressed in civilian clothes as was much of the army and his only equipment is the home-made bandolier made from canvas. His machine-gun is the Danish Madsen light machine-gun which was imported in large numbers and also manufactured in Canton as the 'Rex' in the 1920s. As more equipment became available he would have been issued it in dribs and drabs and most Communists had by the start of the Civil War in 1946 at least a basic uniform. D3: Communist Soldier, New 4th Army, 1941 The New 4th Army was a Communist unit under the control of the Nationalist high command after the forming of the 'United Front' against Japan. In 1941 the Nationalists turned against this unit and tried to wipe it out. This soldier wears a Nationalist uniform in blue-grey cotton, with the Nationalist sun badge on his cap. The unit patch would soon have had '1941' added to it to commemorate the incident that ended the uneasy alliance between the Communists and Nationalists. His Mauser rifle could have been supplied by the Nationalists or captured from them in an earlier battle (this was how most Communists got their arms). His pack is typical of those used by all Chinese armies of this period and would often have had many more bits and pieces tied to it. D4: Detail of arm patch of New 4th Army on D3

E1: Nationalist private 3rd Class, defending Manchuria 1931

One of the soldiers who tried unsuccessfully to defend

Manchuria from the invadingJapanese in 1931. He is dressed for winter conditions in his padded cotton uniform and fur-lined hat with the Nationalist badge on the front. The flaps on the hat could be either down over the ears, as here, or tied up. His collar rank is one gold triangle on a red background, which indicates that he is of the lowest rank of private 3rd class. The automatic rifle he carries is a ZH-29 of Czechoslovakian make - quite a modern rifle for its time. These rifles were seen in quite wide use in the armies of northern China when the Japanese attacked. Many of these troops when defeated either joined the anti-Japanese guerrillas or the army of the new Empire of Manchukuo. E2: Nationalist corporal, 'Big Sword' unit, Jehol, 1933

A member of an elite unit that was armed unconventionally with large swords based on medieval cavalry swords called ma-tao. These troops were meant to be shock troops with their swords and Mauser pistols, and in this role they are said to have been quite successful. The motto that they had on their patches read:

'When we fight we first use bullets; when the bullets are gone, we use bayonets; when the bayonets are dull, we use the rifle barrel; when this is broken, we use our fists; when our fists are broken, we bite!'

This soldier shows off his trophy of a Japanese helmet, which would have been highly prized since he is part of the army defending Jehol from the Japanese and Manchukuo invading army. His padded cotton uniform bears the collar insignia of one gold triangle and one black stripe. The cap has the sun emblem seen in a few different versions in enamel. E3: Private 1st class, Nationalist Army, Shanghai 1937

This soldier is from one of the Nationalist German-trained divisions that defended Shanghai against the Japanese so valiantly in 1937, and were destroyed in the process. These troops formed the backbone of the Nationalist Army, and their loss in the battle was a crushing blow to further Chinese resistance. He wears a light cotton uniform in light khaki with 45

his rank of two gold triangles on his collar. His unit patch on his left breast denotes that he is the 'loyal soldier' of his commanding general and has the red branch colour around the edge of the patch. The German 1935 model helmet with the Nationalist sun emblem on the left side shows the influence of the German mission that trained him. His rifle is a Chinese-produced copy of the Mauser 98k, which was known in China as the 'Chiang Kai-shek' rifle. E4: Detail of Nationalist cap badge on E2

F1: Manchukuo Army soldier, 1933

This soldier of the early army of the puppet Empire of Manchukuo was probably an ex-soldier of the 'Young Marshal's' army that was chased out by the Japanese in 1931. Many of these soldiers swapped their allegiance to the new regime, not for political reasons but simply to fill their rice bowl. He wears an early uniform of the new army with the five-coloured enamel star on his peaked cap. The colours in the cap badge are the same as the earlier Republican ones, but arranged in a different order. Most of the Manchukuoan soldiers would have been lucky to have a new uniform and would have worn their old Nationalist ones with the insignia removed. The yellow armband was to distinguish between the Manchukuoan troops and the anti-Japanese fighters who wore red armbands. His collar insignia shows him to belong to the 2nd sub unit of the 8th company. Rain-hats like this were often worn on the march and kept the rain off quite effectively. The rifle is a 6.5mm Mannilicher export model -part of the booty taken from the defeated Nationalists. F2: Pu-Yi, Emperor of Manchukuo, in officer's uniform, 1934

Pu-Yi, the puppet emperor of the new state of Manchukuo, was the last emperor of China. After years in exile he allowed the Japanese to use him as the figurehead of their new puppet state. He is dressed in a smartened-up version of the new uniform for officers of the Manchukuo army - in Japanese khaki material. His cap has the new badge of the army, which is a five-coloured star with the same colours as the old Republican one but arranged in a different order. The order on his chest is the grand order of the orchid blossom, a newly issued award which was only received by Pu-Yi and the Emperor Hirohito. The sword the emperor carries is a Japanese company officer's model which he has borrowed to hold while he has his photograph taken. F3: Manchukuo Army soldier, 1940 By 1940 the army of Manchukuo had its own distinct uniform which had gradually been issued throughout the 1930s. The field cap was a distinctive part of the uniform: at first sight it looks like the Japanese field cap of the 1930s and 1940s, but it was stiffer and had a flatter crown. The uniform is made from Japanese khaki wool material and is cut like the Japanese uniform of the period. His rank of private first class is indicated by the two gold stars on his maroon shoulder bars; his collar insignia is for the 1 st sub unit of the 17th unit. The cap badge is one of several patterns worn by the Manchukuo army, and this type seems to have been worn during the latter years of the regime. All other equipment is of Japanese make, as is the rifle, an Arisaka 98 - the standard rifle of the Japanese army in World War II. F4: Detail of Manchukuo Army cap badge on F3's cap

G1: Reformed Government officer, 1939

This officer of the Reformed Government set up by the Japanese in Nanking in 1938 is a major-general, as indicated by the single eight-point star on his collar. His uniform is a Japanese officer's with puppet insignia added. His cap badge is an enamel flower with five petals in the colours of the old Republican flag, which this regime used. He is armed with a Japanese officer's sword-standard issue for most

19th Century French Officers Sword

Nationalist officers prepare to evacuate Nanking in 1949 in a stripped-down US jeep. Two of them wear the new pattern peaked cap introduced in 1946 while the other two still wear the old pattern field cap. By the time of this photo the Nationalist Army was well beaten and these men would have had little fight left in them. (Popperfoto)

puppet army officers. Other Reformed Government troops wore a motley assemblage of uniform. One unit was seen wearing a mixture of Japanese and German helmets, worn at every angle and looking as if they had all dressed quickly in whatever captured uniform the Japanese had given them. G2: Inner Mongolian cavalryman, Suiyuan 1936 The soldiers of the puppet regime in parts of Inner Mongolia invaded Suiyuan in 1936 and this man is one of the irregulars of that force. He is dressed in traditional Mongol dress, which consists of his tunic, or deel, and soft leather boots. The lamb's wool hat is quite Cossack-like. He would not have looked out of place in the army of Ghengis Khan, apart from the modern submachine-gun. His flag was used until 1937, when it was changed along with the name of the regime. Other Inner Mongolian soldiers were captured wearing Japanese uniforms with insignia removed. His submachine-gun is a rare Swiss Sig Model 1930, which must have been bought in very small numbers for the elite of this army and would have come complete with the chest magazine holder.

G3: Provisional Government soldier, 1939

The Provisional Government was set up by the Japanese in Peking in December 1937 and began to recruit a limited number of soldiers in late 1939; this soldier would have been one of the first. All the puppet governments were desperately short of finances, and the Provisional Government was no exception, so this soldier is equipped and uniformed very basically. The cheap cotton uniform would probably have been manufactured locally along with his haversack; the water bottle is Japanese army issue. His cap badge is a five-coloured star in the colours of the old Republican flag - red, black, white, blue and yellow. He is armed with a Japanese Nambu light machine-gun which has been donated by his Japanese masters. Puppet troops were later given weapons captured by the Japanese in their conquests in the rest of Asia, so they could have been armed with Dutch, French or British firearms.

G4: Detail of Reformed Government cap badge on G1 H1: Communist soldier, 1946

This Communist soldier of the early Civil War period wears a khaki cotton uniform with the red star sewn onto his cap. The Communists wore a variety of types of uniform, with captured items of clothing put to good use. No rank insignia is worn by this soldier, or most other Communist forces during the Civil War. The straw rain hat was widely used for protection against the sun and rain, and the style of it would be very regional. Red armbands were sometimes worn by squad, platoon or special unit leaders and didn't have any writing on. As with most uniforms of the period, it was difficult to have a standard dress because of the various sources of supply and the scarcity of some items of clothing and equipment. His Type 44 Japanese carbine would be from one of those sources of supply from the defeated Japanese army.

H2: Nationalist soldier, 1949

By the end of the Civil War many Nationalist troops were wearing a new type of uniform which was an updated version of the old winter quilted uniform. He is surrendering to his captors, as were thousands of his comrades by 1949, when the defeat of the Nationalists was assured. The name tag over his left breast pocket did not have a branch colour round it as in earlier uniforms. American equipment was supplied in

People Liberation Army Insignia

Mao Tse-tung reviews the victorious People's Liberation Army at Hsiyuan airfield outside Peking. He rides in an American jeep captured from the Nationalists past a line-up of anti-aircraft guns also captured in the Civil War. The antiaircraft guns are German Flak 18s, which were imported in small numbers by China in the 1930s. Mao wears a new heavy overcoat in green, with one of the caps named after him. (Xinghua News Agency)

Mao Tse-tung reviews the victorious People's Liberation Army at Hsiyuan airfield outside Peking. He rides in an American jeep captured from the Nationalists past a line-up of anti-aircraft guns also captured in the Civil War. The antiaircraft guns are German Flak 18s, which were imported in small numbers by China in the 1930s. Mao wears a new heavy overcoat in green, with one of the caps named after him. (Xinghua News Agency)

large quantities to the Nationalists, and the Thompson submachine-gun at his feet would have been part of those supplies. The magazine pouches on his chest were to hold 30 round magazines for the Thompson. Ordinary soldiers like him may well have been absorbed into the Communist Army after political re-education as part of the Red Army's realistic approach to expanding the size of their forces. H3: Communist soldier, 1949

This soldier wears another version of the uniform of the Communist armies of the Civil War. The blue-grey padded jacket was in wide use through the 1930s and 1940s, and was not replaced till the early 1950s. On his jacket he wears a pin badge issued to celebrate one of the Communists' major victories - the battle of Huai-Hai in late 1948. Much of the Communists' equipment was captured from the Japanese in 1945 or handed over by the Russians from booty they had captured in their Manchurian campaign. So the Japanese Type 96 light machine-gun and Japanese army helmet were widely used by the Communists. The unit patch is for the 18th Group Army, which began life as the famous 8th Route Army.

H4: Detail of badge to commemorate Communist victory in Battle of Huai-Hai on H3 H5: Detail of red star from cap of H1


(References to illustrations are shown in bold. Plates are prefixed 'pi.' with commentary locators in brackets.)

airforces 15, 22, 23 An-fu clique 4 army organisation 19

boy soldiers 13

Chang Hsueh-liang ('Young Marshal') 14, 24, 35, 46 (Fl)

Chang Tso-lin 5, 5, 9, 13, 15, 18, 42 (Bl) Chang Ts'ung-ch'ang 13, 15, 18, 43 (C2) Chiang Kai-shek 5, 6, 8, 20, 23, 24, 37, 38 Chihli clique: pi. B2 (42-43); 4, 10, 13, 18 Chu Te 5, 18, 33, 34

Civil War (1945-49): pi. H (47); 8, 19, 23, 24, 37-39

Huai-Hai: pi. H3/4 (47); 8 Communist armies (Red Army/PLA) 5, 6, 7, 19, 24, 24, 33-34, 37, 38, 39

41,44,45,47 8th Route Army 19, 33, 34, 47 (H3) New 4th Army: pi. D3/4 (45); 7, 19, 24,33, 34

encirclement campaigns 5, 6, 24

Feng Chan-hai 45 (Dl) Feng Yu-hsiang 5, 9, 13, 14, 18, 43 (Cl) Fengtien clique: pi. Bl (42); 4, 13, 14 flags: pi. Dl (45), G2 (47); 12, 14, 21, 21, 37

Germany 4, 45-46 girl soldiers 37

guerrilla armies (antijapanese): pi. Dl (44-45); 34, 35, 45 (El)

'Hundred Regiments' campaign 7, 33

Imperial Army: pi. A (42); 3,4,8-11, 13, 19, 19 insignia 10-11, 12, 16, 20-21, 22, 23-24, 33-34, 36, 38, 39

pi. ill: A-H (42-47) passim misc ill: 5, 6, 15, 21, 23, 24, 33, 37, 39, 41

5-coloured stars 12, 35, 37

ill: pi. Bl/3/4 (42, 43), Fl/2 (46), G3 (47); 7, 13,21,22 5-petal flower: pi. Gl/4 (46, 47); 24, 37

armbands 12, 18, 35

ill: pi. Bl (42), B2/3 (43), Cl/2(43), Fl (46), HI (47); 4 commemorative badges: pi. H4 (47); 39, 40 dragon design: pi. A2/4 (42); 10 red star: pi. Hl/5 (47); 17, 18, 33 stones: pi. A2 (42); 10-11 sun emblem 20, 21, 23, 34, 38

ill: pi. C3/4 (44), D3 (45), El-4 (45, 46); 15, 16, 20, 41 see also uniforms 8c equipment

Japanese 5-7, 9, 15, 23, 24, 33, 34-37, 44, 45, 46, 47 Jen Yuan-tao 24

Kiangsi soviet 5, 24 Kouniow, General 36 Kuominchun clique 13 Kuomintang Army 4-5, 19-20, 21 Kwangsi generals 5

League of Five Provinces 13

Lee-fen, General 3

Army of: pi. F (46); 13, 19, 21, 22, 35-36, 45 (El) Mao Tse-tung 5, 18, 33, 38, 47 mechanised units 15,41

armoured trains: pi. C2 (43); 15 medals & awards: pi. F2 (46); 10, 18 military police: pi. Cl (43)

'Rape of Nanking' 6 Nationalist Army 5, 7, 8, 13, 19, 19-24, 20, 33, 34, 37-39

pi. ill: C3 (44), Dl (44-45), El-3 (45-46), H2 (47)

other ill: 14, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44 19th Route Army 6, 16 Northern Expedition: pi, C3 (44); 4-5, 9, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 43 (B3)

Pu-Yi, Emperor: pi. F2 (46); 3, 6, 8, 12, 21, 34-35 puppet armies 34—37

Manchukuo Army see Manchukuo Provisional Govt Army: pi. G3 (47); 6, 9,

33, 36, 37 Reformed Govt Army: pi. Gl (46-47); 6, 9, 20, 23, 24, 36, 37 Republican Army: pi. A3 (42); 4, 5, 12, 13, 19, 19

Shanghai 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 16, 45-46 'Shansi' incident 6, 24 Soviet aid 4, 7, 20, 39

Sun Ch'uan-Fang 9, 12, 13, 13, 18, 43 (B3) SunYat-sen 3,4, 19-20

Tsai Ting-kai, General 15 Tsao-lun, Marshal 10

umbrellas: pi. B3 (43); 11, 17 uniforms fc equipment 10-11, 12, 15, 16-18, 20-24, 33-34, 35-36, 37, 38-39 ill: pi. A-H (42-47); 3-24 passim, 33-47 passim see also insignia US aid 7, 23, 34, 38-39, 42

Wang Ching-wei 7, 36, 37 warlords 4-5, 5, 9, 10, 12-18, 24

armies of: pi. B (42-43), Cl/2 (43); 4, 6, 7, 12, 13, 13-18, 14, 21, 33 weaponry 15, 47 artillery 4, 14, 15,37 bayonets: pi. Cl (43); 38 machine-guns 15, 39

light machine-guns: pi. D2 (45), G3 (47), H3 (47); 36,43,44 pistols: pi. A3 (42), C3 (44); 15 rifles/carbines: pi. A-H (42-47) passim;

H2 (47); 43 swords: pi. A2/3 (42), F2 (46), Gl (46-47); 5, 6, 15, 38 Whampoa military academy 4, 20 White Russians: pi. C2 (43); 15, 36 Wu Pei-fu 7, 9, 13, 15, 18, 42 (B2) Wuchang 3, 5, 8, 9, 12

Yen Hsi-shan 9, 13

'Young Marshal' see Chang Hsueh-liang Yuan Shih-k'ai 3, 4, 8

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