Gunboats in Action

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When the war began, nobody who was given command of a wooden gunboat on the Mississippi River knew what to expect when his vessel went into action. Although experienced naval officers had read the latest theoretical treatises and kept abreast of the latest developments in naval and ordnance technology, the effect of shell guns, steam engines and even armor cladding were largely untested when the war began. Similarly, the introduction of the ram was an unknown quantity. The gunboat captains 011 the Mississippi would have to learn their trade the hard way. An examination of three actions involving gunboats, at New Orleans (April 24, 1862), Plum Point (May 10, 1862), and Memphis (June 6, 1862), will provide a broad outline of the strengths and limitations of these little warships.

The river approach to New Orleans was protected by two forts: Fort Jackson 011 the western shore of the Mississippi, and Fort St Philip on the east. To augment the 128 guns in these fortified positions, the Confederates had towed down the unfinished ironclad Louisiana and moored her as a floating battery. The small ironclad ram CSS Manassas and a flotilla of 10 wooden gunboats took up positions upriver from the forts. Overall command of both shore and naval defenses was given to General Mansfield Lovell.

The wooden cottonclad ram Stonewall Jackson depicted ramming the damaged wooden gunboat USS Varuna. The Union vessel sank, but the Confederate ram was subsequently raked by the remainder of the Union fleet, then scuttled by her own crew.

At 2 a.m. on April 24, Commodore Farragut's wooden steam fleet approached the forts, trying to bypass the static defenses. He broke through a line of rafts and hulks opposite Fort Jackson, only to have his fleet attacked by the Manassas. This ironclad rammed the USS Mississippi and the USS Brooklyn, but caused minimal damage. As Fort Jackson was bypassed, it was up to the gunners in Fort St Philip and the wooden gunboat fleet to stop the Union attack.

The leading Union ship was the USS Varuna, and the Governor Moore of the Louisiana Provisional Navy charged past the milling crowd of Confederate vessels to attack her. In the process she rammed and sank a Confederate tug which got in the way. Fire from the Union ships was intense. As the Confederate captain recalled, "This combined attack killed and wounded a large number of our men and cut the vessel up terribly. Suddenly two, then one Confederate ram(s) darted through the thick smoke from the right to the left bank of the river, passing close to all of us." These vessels ran aground or were disabled before they could ram any of the Union vessels.

The Governor Moore was more fortunate. Her commander (Captain Beverley Kennon, Louisiana Provisional Navy) ordered oil to be poured on his furnaces to generate more power, then aimed his ram at the Varuna. He opened fire 011 her with her bow gun, then rammed the Union warship. Unable to depress the bow gun sufficiently to hit the enemy hull in the normal way, the Confederate gun crew fired through the bow of their own vessel. The second such shot disabled the Varuna's bow gun. "We backed clear, gathered headway again, and rammed her a second time as near the same place as possible." The Varuna drifted inshore, where her crew tried to beach her, but then the ram Stonewall Jackson came up and finished the job, sinking the Union gunboat in shallow water.

Galley Uss Lexington
USS Lexington
Uss Lexington GunboatCoal Bunker ShipUss Maine Coal BunkerCss Governor MooreSidewheel Deck

Coal Bunkers

Cotton Bales for extra protection Signal Masts

Berth Deck (Crew's Quarters)

Pilot House

Ship's Office

Wardroom

Smokestacks

Identification Letter

Ship's Galley

Magazine

Officers' Staterooms Captain's Day Cabin Captain's Stateroom Ventilation Slots Ensign Staff Main Deck Tiller Ropes Boatswain's Store Heads

After Coal Bunker

Dry Store

Paddlewheel

Paddlewheel Box

Steam Condenser

Steam Inlet Pipes

Engine (one of two)

Upper Deck Walkway

Boiler (one of three)

12-pounder Howitzer and carriage

Forward Coal Bunker

Forward Store

Reinforced Lower Hull

30-pounder Parrot rifle and carriage

Ram Bow (timber, with iron cladding)

CSS General Sterling Price

Navy Tinclad TensasCss General Bragg

CSS General Bragg

Css Governor MooreUnion Sternwheel GunboatTimberclad ConestogaCordova Marmora Area Gold MinesGunboat Rodolph Guns

The Louisiana State cottonclad ram Governor Moore shown locked in combat with the gunboat USS Varuna, after ramming her, during the Battle of New Orleans. The Confederate gunners fired through their own hull in order to hit the enemy vessel.

Minutes later the Governor Moore was engaged by the USS Cayuga, followed by the rest of the Union flotilla as they steamed past, and she was riddled with shellfire. Binning from stem to stern, she sank, her Louisiana state colors still flying. The badly damaged Stonewall Jackson was also abandoned.

Further downstream the CSS McRae also engaged the line of passing Union ships, exchanging broadsides with the powerful USS Brooklyn and the USS Iroquois before the rest of the licet began to pour lire into her. Riddled and sinking, she was beached and abandoned by her crew. The same fate befell most of the Confederate wooden gunboats in the fleet. Unable to prevent the Union progress, they were cut off from their line of retreat up the river. The few vessels that survived the fight were destroyed by their own crews to prevent capture. Although the effectiveness of ramming tactics had been demonstrated, these gunboats had also proven their vulnerability to enemy shellfire.

On May 10, 1862, the Union river fleet was above Fort Pillow, providing cover for mortar boats which were bombarding the Confederate positions. The vessel on point guard furthest downstream was the casemate ironclad USS Cincinnati. Smoke was spotted, and as the ironclad raised steam, Captain James F. Montgomery's River Defense Fleet rounded the bend. Montgomery commanded liis full flotilla of eight rams, and led the way in his flagship, CSS Little Rebel. Ilis vessels were making approximately nine knots, steaming against a one-knot current. The Confederates had the advantage of surprise, and before the Cincinnati Could get fully under way the CSS General Bragg rammed her on her starboard side. The Cincinnati replied with a broadside at point-blank range, sending the large wooden ram reeling downstream. Just then the CSS General Sterling Price smashed into the ironclad's stem, disabling her rudder.

By (his time other ironclads had entered the fight, and the USS Carondolet and the USS Mound City poured fire into the General liragg, which drifted away, out of the fight. The CSS General Sumter was the next vessel to smash into the Cincinnati, causing severe damage. The leading mortar boat fired mortar shells over the Sumter to prevent sharpshooters on her decks firing into the ironclad. The CSS General Van Dorn replied by firing two 32-pounder shells into (lie mortar boat, disabling it completely. The ram then steamed past and rammed the Mound City, just seconds after the ironclad was rammed by the Sumter. The ironclad limped off, and sank in shallow water. Next, the ironclad USS Benton arrived and fired on the CSS Colonel l.ovell, while (he Carondolet hit the Sumter's boiler, which exploded, causing heavy casualties.

The Louisiana State cottonclad ram Governor Moore shown locked in combat with the gunboat USS Varuna, after ramming her, during the Battle of New Orleans. The Confederate gunners fired through their own hull in order to hit the enemy vessel.

Paintings Farragut Fleets

An aerial representation of Commodore Farragut's Union fleet forcing its way past the forts below New Orleans on April 24, 1862. In the bottom right corner, a number of Confederate gunboats are shown supporting the attack of the ironclad ram CSS Manassas.

Faced with annihilation, Montgomery withdrew the remainder of his force. As he now faced the entire Union river ironclad fleet, he had little option. As the Benton and Carondolet gave chase, the Cincinnati: sank in I 1 feet of water, the last casualty of the battle. In an engagement that had only lasted about 40 minutes, two Union ironclads had been sunk for the loss of 108 men, and in return for heavy damage to three Confederate rams. Once more the effectiveness of ramming tactics had been demonstrated, this time against an armored opponent. Although what became known as the Battle of Plum Point was a Confederate victory, Montgomery could ill afford such losses, and both Union ironclads wen-raised and repaired. Next time the two fleets met, the North would have rams of their own.

On June 6, 1862. the two fleets met again off Memphis in a dawn battle, watched by numerous onlookers on the shore. Once again, the Confederates fielded eight vessels, as the extensive damage to the ram fleet had been repaired. Five Union ironclads came downriver stern first, followed by five wooden Ellet rams (Queen of the West, Monarch, Switzerland, Lancaster, and Lioness). When the vessels came within range, the Union ironclads turned to face the enemy and the rams charged past them. The Confederate rams formed into two lines, each of four ships, and steamed to meet them. The CSS M.Jeff Thompson fired the first shot, and soon every ship was firing. The Colonel Lovell and the General Beauregard headed toward Filet's flagship, the Queen of the West, but at the

An aerial representation of Commodore Farragut's Union fleet forcing its way past the forts below New Orleans on April 24, 1862. In the bottom right corner, a number of Confederate gunboats are shown supporting the attack of the ironclad ram CSS Manassas.

last minute the Confederate rams reversed their paddles to slow themselves down, which made them turn. Ellet smashed into the side of the Lovell, toppling the Confederate vessel's smokestacks and leaving her filling with water. She drifted off to the eastern shore and sank, taking most of her crew with her. The Beauregard duly rammed the Queen of the West on her port wheelhouse, and the Union vessel limped away. Ellet was mortally wounded by a sharpshooter during the clash, and he died shortly afterwards. The Beauregard had virtually stopped in the water by this lime, and the Monarch headed straight for her. The Central Sumter steered for the Monarch, but the Union ram slipped past the two Confederate vessels, and the Sumter and Beauregard collided. Helpless, the Beauregard was fired on by the ironclad Benton, and her boiler was hit. The Confederate ram exploded, as did the M. Jeff Thompson. The remaining Confederate rams turned and fled, but one by one they were disabled and destroyed by the ironclads. Only the Earl Van Dorn escaped to the safety of Vicksburg.

This last great ram battle on the Mississippi River not only demonstrated the vulnerability of wooden gunboats to the fire of heavy shell guns, but it virtually destroyed the last remaining Confederate naval units on the river. Although the Confederate Navy would have other successes on the rivers, its gunboat fleet had been decimated. Ramming tactics were effective, but the action also demonstrated the need to combine the ram with a powerful armament. Union leaders look this lesson to heart, and upgraded the armament of their wooden fleet.

These three river gunboat actions were characterized by close-range mêlées involving ramming and point-blank gunfire. Ramming tactics worked when the attacker had the benefit of surprise. Without it, wooden rams and gunboats simply invited destruction at the hands of more powerful warships.

Varuna And Governor Moore

After ramming the Varuna, the Confederate ram Governor Moore was devastated by fire from the Union fleet. In this engraving the USS Pensacola is shown pouring fire into the stricken gunboat.

SHIP LIST -

UNION

Note that the entries include (lie vessel's principal area of operation, and where applicable, t he identifying number painted on the pilot house from June 19, IHfi.S, onwards. Where appropriate, vessels are listed by type, and in the order in which (hev entered service. Where no figures are given in length, displacement or other categories this means that the information was never recorded. USS = United States Ship

NAME

TYPE

COMMISSIONED

SERVED

DISPLACEMENT

TIMBERCLADS

USS Tyler

Sidewheel gunboat

June 1861

Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers

420 tons

USS Conestoga

Sidewheel gunboat

August 1861

Mississippi River

572 tons

USS Lexington

Sidewheel gunboat

August 1861

Mississipppi River

362 tons

USS Avenger

Sidewheel gunboat

February 1864

Mississippi River

410 tons

RAMS

War Department (Eilet) Rams

USS Mingo

Sternwheel ram

April 1862

Mississippi River

228 tons

USS Monarch

Sidewheel ram

April 1862

Mississippi River

406 tons

USS Lancaster

Sidewheel ram

May 1862

Mississippi River

375 tons

USS Lioness

Sternwheel ram

May 1862

Mississippi River

198 tons

USS Queen of the Wesf

Sidewheel ram

May 1862

Mississippi River

406 tons

USS Switzerland

Sidewheel ram

May 1862

Mississippi River

519 tons

USS Sampson

Sternwheel ram

May 1862

Mississippi River

230 tons

Other Rams

USS Vindicator

Sidewheel ram

May 1864

Mississippi and Red Rivers

750 tons

USS Avenger

Sidewheel ram

February 1864

Mississippi River

410 tons

TINCLADS

USS Brilliant (No. 18)

Sternwheeler

August 1862

Mississippi River

227 tons

USS General Pillow (No. 20)

Sidewheeler

August 1862

Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers

38 tons

USS Fairplay (No. 17)

Sidewheeler

September 1862

Ohio and Cumberland Rivers

162 tons

USS St Clair (No. 19)

Sternwheeler

September 1862

Mississippi River

203 tons

USS Marmora (No. 2)

Sidewheeler

October 1862

Mississippi River

207 tons

USS Signal (No. 8)

Sternwheeler

October 1862

Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers

190 tons

USS Black Hawk (not numbered)

Sidewheeler

December 1862

Mississippi River (flagship)

902 tons

USS Forest nose (No. 9)

Sternwheeler

December 1862

Mississippi River

260 tons

USS Glide (I) (not numbered)

Sternwheeler

December 1862

Mississippi River

137 tons

USS Juliet (No. 4)

Sternwheeler

December 1862

Mississippi River

157 tons

USS New Era (No. 7)

Sternwheeler

December 1862

Mississippi and White Rivers

157 tons

USS Rattler (No. 1)

Sternwheeler

December 1862

Mississippi River

165 tons

USS Romeo (No. 3)

Sternwheeler

December 1862

Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers

175 tons

USS Silver Lake (No. 23)

Sternwheeler

December 1862

Mississippi and Ohio Rivers

236 tons

USS Cricket (No. 6)

Sternwheeler

January 1863

Mississippi and Red Rivers

178 tons

USS Springfield (No. 22)

Sidewheeler

January 1863

Mississippi and Ohio Rivers

146 tons

Tinclad Gunboat

LENGTH ARMAMENT REMARKS

180 ft 6 x 8 in smoothbores, 1 x 32-pdr smoothbore +

3 x 30-pdr rifles September 1862

4 x 32-pdr smoothbores Sunk in collision, March 1864 178 ft 2 x 32-pdr smoothbores, 4 x 8 in smoothbores +

2 x 30-pdr rifles September 1862 210 ft 6 guns _-_

The tinclad gunboat USS Prairie Bird (No. 11) photographed at anchor off Vicksburg, Tennessee, following the capture of the city in July 1863. She carried eight 24-pounder howitzers, and used them twice in anger, at Eunice, Mississippi, in June 1863, and at Gaine's Landing, Arkansas, in August 1864. She is typical of the dozens of tinclad sternwheelers which served in the Union river fleet.

Sunk in collision, November 1862

-

-

Sunk by ice damage, December 1864

176 ft

-

Sunk by Confederate gunfire at Vicksburg. March 1863

-

-

-

181 ft

4 guns

Captured by Confederates, February 1863; destroyed in action, April 1863

178 ft

-

-

-

2 guns

Converted into a floating machine shop from September 1862

210 ft

5 guns

-

210 ft

6 guns

-

155 ft

4 guns

-

81 ft

2 guns

Former Confederate steamer, captured June 1862

139 ft

4 guns

Former Confederate transport, captured August 1862

156 ft

4 guns

-

155 ft

2 x 24-pdr, 2 x 12-pdr rifles + 4 x 24-pdr

-

157 ft

7 guns

Destroyed to prevent capture, May 1864

260 ft

2 x 32-pdr, 2 x 30-pdr rifles, 2 x 12-pdr smoothbore

Burned and sunk in accidental fire. April 1865

155 ft

6 guns

-

-

6 guns

Burned and sunk in accidental fire. February 1863

156 ft

6 guns

-

137 ft

-

-

-

6 guns

Sunk in storm, December 1864

154 ft

6 guns

-

155 ft

6 guns

-

154 ft

6 guns

-

140 ft

6 guns

TYPE

COMMISSIONED SERVED

DISPLACEMENT

TINCLADS (CONTINUED)

USS Prairie Bird (No. 11) USS Curlew (No. 12) USS Covington (No. 25)

Sternwheeler Sternwheeler Sternwheeler Sidewheeler

January 1863 January 1863 February 1863 February 1863

Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers 177 tons

Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers 171 tons

Mississippi River 196 tons

Tennessee River 224 tons

Sternwheeler

February 1863

Mississippi River

226 tons

Sternwheeler

March 1863

Mississippi River

219 tons

USS Hastings (No. 15)

Sidewheeler

USS Queen City (No. 26) Sidewheeler

April 1863 April 1863

Tennessee and White Rivers Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers

USS Champion (No. 24) Sternwheeler

USS James Thompson

USS Naumkeag (No. 37) USS Fawn (No. 30) USS Kenwood (No. 14) USS Key West (No. 32) USS Moose (No. 34) USS Silver Cloud (No. 28) USS Alfred Robb (No. 21) USS Exchange (No. 38) USS Reindeer (No. 35)

Sidewheeler

Sternwheeler Sternwheeler Sternwheeler Sternwheeler Sternwheeler Sternwheeler Sternwheeler Sternwheeler Sternwheeler

Sidewheeler Centerwheeler

Sidewheeler

Sidewheeler

Sternwheeler

Sternwheeler

USS Stockdale (No. 42) USS Alexandria (No. 40) USS Nyanza iNo 41) USS Ouachita (not numbered) USS Tensas (No. 39) USS Gazelle (No. 50) USS Elfin (No. 52) USS Fairy (No. 51) USS Meteor (No. 44) USS Naiad (No. 53)

Sternwheeler Sidewheeler Sidewheeler Sidewheeler

Sidewheeler

Sidewheeler

Sternwheeler

Sternwheeler

Sternwheeler

Sternwheeler

April 1863

Mississippi River

196 tons 210 tons 115 tons

April 1863

April 1863 May 1863 May 1863 May 1863 May 1863 May 1863

May 1863 June 1863 July 1863

July 1863

July 1863

October 1863 October 1863

November 1863 November 1863 December 1863 December 1863 December 1863 January 1864

February 1864 February 1864 February 1864 March 1864 March 1864 April 1864

Mississippi and Red Rivers

Mississippi River White River

Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers Mississippi River Mississippi River Mississippi River Tennessee and Yazoo Rivers Mississippi River

Mississippi and Ohio Rivers

Mississippi River

Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers

Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers

Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico Mississippi River Mississippi River Mississippi River

Mississippi River Red River Mississippi River Mississippi River Gulf of Mexico Mississippi River

280 tons

148 tons 174 tons 232 tons 207 tons 189 tons 236 tons 86 tons

211 tons

212 tons

160 tons

175 tons

204 tons 108 tons 232 tons 229 tons 188 tons 60 tons 203 tons 572 tons

Sternwheeler

April 1864

Mississippi River

62 tons 117 tons 192 tons 173 tons 221 tons 185 tons 171 tons

The Steamer Uss Mississipi
The former luxury river steam boat New Uncle Sam was commissioned as the USS Black Hawk, and served as a floating command vessel for Admiral Porter during the siege of Vicksburg and the Red River campaign.

LENGTH

ARMAMENT

REMARKS

155 ft

154 ft 1 57ft" 120 ft

151 ft

114 ft

160 ft

154 ft

90 ft

227 ft

92 ft 135 ft

155 ft 157 ft

156 ft

157 ft 161 ft

6 guns 8 guns

7 guns

8 guns 8 guns 8 guns

7 guns

8 guns

5 guns

6 guns

6 guns 6 guns

5 guns

6 guns 10 guns 6 guns

4 guns

6 guns

6 guns 6 guns 8 guns

14 guns

8 guns

6 guns

6 guns

Sunk after striking object in water, February 1864

Abandoned and destroyed, May 1864

Captured by Confederates, then destroyed. April 1864

Captured by Confederates, then destroyed, June 1864

Renamed Manitou in June 1863, and Fort Hindman in November 1863

Destroyed to prevent capture. November 1864

Former Confederate transport, captured in April 1862

6 guns 2 guns 6 guns

5 x 30-pdr rifles, 18 x 24-pdr. 15 x 12-pdr, smoothbores, 1 x 12-pdr

2 guns

6 guns 8 guns 8 guns 6 guns 12 guns

Sunk after striking underwater obstacle, August 1863: salvaged and repaired, September 1863 ___

Destroyed to prevent capture. November 1864

Captured by Confederates. May 1864

Confederate gunboat, captured in July 1863

Former Confederate riverboat

Former Confederate gunboat

Burned to prevent capture. November 1864

12 guns

The tinclad USS Peosta (No. 36) was converted from a Cincinnati riverboat bearing the same name in late 1863. She operated on the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers, and used her powerful armament of 14 guns (including three 30-pounder rifles) to bombard enemy troop concentrations at Paducah, Kentucky, in March 1864. (Mariners' Museum)

Uss Naumkeag

NAME

TYPE

COMMISSIONED

SERVED

DISPLACEMENT

TINCLADS (CONTINUED)

USS Tallahatchie (No. 46)

Sternwheeler

April 1864

Mississippi River

171 tons

USS Undine (No. 55)

Sternwheeler

April 1864

Mississippi River

179 tons

USS Carrabasset (No. 49)

Sidewheeler

May 1864

Gulf of Mexico

202 tons

USS Elk (No. 47)

Sidewheeler

May 1864

Gulf of Mexico

162 tons

USS Rodolph (No. 48)

Sternwheeler

May 1864

Gulf of Mexico

217 tons

USS Huntress (No. 58)

Sternwheeler

June 1864

Mississippi River

211 tons

USS Peri (No. 57

Sternwheeler

June 1864

Mississippi River

155 tons

USS Sibyl (No. 59)

Sternwheeler

June 1864

Mississippi River

176 tons

USS General Sherman (No. 60)

Sidewheeler

July 1864

Tennessee River

187 tons

USS General Grant (No. 62)

Sidewheeler

July 1864

Tennessee River

204 tons

USS General Thomas (No. 61)

Sidewheeler

August 1864

Tennessee River

184 tons

USS General Burnside (No. 63)

Sidewheeler

August 1864

Tennessee River (flagship)

210 tons

USS Siren (No. 56)

Sternwheeler

August 1864

Receiving Ship. Mississippi River

232 tons

USS Grossbeak (No. 8)

Sidewheeler

February 1865

Mississippi River

196 tons

USS Colossus (No. 25)

Sternwheeler

February 1865

Mississippi River

183 tons

USS Mist (No. 26)

Sternwheeler

March 1865

Mississippi River

232 tons

USS Oriole (No. 52)

Sternwheeler

March 1865

Mississippi River

236 tons

USS Gamage (No. 60)

Sternwheeler

March 1865

Mississippi River

187 tons

USS Collier (No. 29)

Sternwheeler

March 1865

Mississippi River

170 tons

USS Ibex (No. 10)

Sidewheeler

April 1865

Mississippi River

235 tons

USS Kate (No. 55)

Sternwheeler

April 1865

Mississippi River

241 tons

USS Tempest (No. 1)

Sternwheeler

April 1865

Mississippi River (flagship)

161 tons

USS Abeona (No. 32)

Sidewheeler

April 1865

Mississippi River

206 tons

CAPTURED VESSELS NOT PREVIOUSLY LISTED

USS General Bragg

CAPTURED VESSELS NOT PREVIOUSLY LISTED

USS General Bragg

USS General Price

USS Sumter

USS Barataría USS Little Rebel (16)

Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers Mississippi and Red Rivers Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico

Gulf of Mexico Mississippi River

Tinclad Sibyl
The tinclad USS Naiad (No. 53) entered service in the spring of 1864 and saw action during a series of engagements with Confederate shore batteries in Louisiana. Before being bought by the US Navy, she was the Princess, a passenger steamer operating on the Ohio River.

LENGTH ARMAMENT REMARKS

■ » --

6 guns

8 guns

Captured by Confederates, October

1864; burned to prevent recapture, November 1864

155 ft

6 guns

-

156 ft

6 guns

-

6 guns

Sunk by mine, April 1865

132 ft

6 guns

-

148 ft

7 guns

-

150 ft

4 guns

• -

168 ft 5 guns Decommissioned by Navy, March 1865

168 ft 5 guns Decommissioned by Navy, March 1865

171 ft 5 guns

165 ft

5 guns

-

171 ft

5 guns

-

155 ft

8 guns

-

164 ft

7 guns

-

115ft

7 guns

-

157 ft

7 guns

-

125 ft

9 guns

-

148 ft

9 guns

-

158 ft

9 guns

-

157 ft

7 guns

-

160 ft

10 guns

-

162 ft

8 guns

-

157 ft

5 guns

-

Formerly the CSS General Bragg: details listed in Confederate entry

Formerly the CSS General Sterling Price: details listed in Confederate entry

-

Formerly the CSS General Sumter: details listed in

Confederate entry: ran aground and abandoned.

August 1862

-

Formerly the CSS Barataría: details listed in Confederate entry; burned to prevent capture, April 1863

Formally CSS Little Rebel-, details listed in Confederate entry _

Formally CSS Little Rebel-, details listed in Confederate entry _

Css Little Rebel

The crew of a 100-pounder Parrott rifle at divisions, awaiting inspection. This gun formed the main armament of the Sassacus class gunboat USS Metacomet, which took part in the Battle of Mobile Bay. (Private Collection)

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