A monarchist coup

Did the Fascists hope to overthrow the Republic and re-establish the monarchy It is true that some of the conspirators, such as Kindelan and the two Vigon brothers, were monarchists, but Payne is quite right when he observes that 'the majority of the directors of the conspiracy, such as Mola, Goded, Cabanellas and Queipo de Llano felt a veritable antipathy towards monarchy as an institution. Franco himself was obliged to declare that the Moors would act only under the flag of the Republic.'21...

Efforts to prevent the assassinations

No final method has yet been established for making a quantitative comparison between the numbers executed or assassinated on the two sides, although the rigorous studies now being undertaken are making it appear that the number of victims in the rebel zone was the greater. There is, however, another very important comparison to make, the result of which cannot be denied in the Republican zone the killings occurred despite the efforts of the authorities (Republic, Euskadi, Generalitat) to stop...

A nineteenthcentury inheritance

The Republic had no more invented the Religious Question than it had the other questions listed by Jimenez de Asua rather, it was one that the Republic had to try to resolve as other European countries had resolved it, or at least brought it under a measure of control, a century before. During the eras of Medieval Christendom and the absolutist monarchies of the early modern states of Europe, the union between Crown and Church had been undisputed dogma. (Not that this had prevented serious...

The speech at Castelgandolfo

The ecclesiastics and Rightists who in the first months, which were the most bloody, managed to escape to Marseilles, Genoa or Rome were able to serve, as I have said, as a powerful sound-box in a manner comparable to that of the French aristocrats who escaped the revolutionary Terror and found refuge in England or in the German kingdoms and principalities on the far side of the Rhine. The victims of the guillotine in 1792 have inspired many more books, plays and films than those of the...

Two cardinals pass round the collection box

Organizing a collection is one of the things that ecclesiastical authorities have to do very frequently indeed, and the disasters of the Civil War provided every justification for it. In the Republican zone, priests in hiding, ill prepared for common labour and often without documents, depended on the charity of families known to them. On the other side, the clergy suffered great economic hardships, for the new State, which likewise lacked resources, directed everything it could into the war...

Initial attitude of Bishop Pla Y Deniel and Cardinal Goma

Of all the Episcopal documents selected for this pamphlet, the most important, as much for its theological soundness as for its influence on the ideology and propaganda of the rebels, was the letter by Pla y Deniel that we have already mentioned, Las dos ciudades 'The Two Cities' . Although, unlike Goma, Pla y Deniel was not a fundamentalist but belonged to the camp of Social Catholicism, he was nevertheless much more generous than Goma in applying the title of 'Crusade' to the conflict. But...

The rules of Father Huidobro

The Jesuit Fernando Huidobro, cited above, enthusiastic for the cause of the Uprising, produced two writings, one directed to 'the military authorities' and the other to the Cuerpo Jur dico Militar Military Legal Corps , both entitled Sobre la aplicaci n de la pena de muerte en las actuales cir-constancias. Normas de conciencia 'On the Application of the Death Penalty under the Present Circumstances. Rules of Conscience' . With these he proposed 'to arouse the consciences of the chiefs and...

The Vatican press in the Civil War1

In the propaganda war, which was fought internationally and to a considerable extent determined the course of the military war inside Spain, the Vatican press played a role of notable importance, owing to the fact that one side had taken on a religious and the other an anti-religious character. It might, therefore, be helpful, before examining how the Holy See adopted its position regarding the conflict, to take a general look at the Vatican press itself. When speaking of the press of the...

From pronunciamiento to Civil

These preliminary observations about pronunciamientos will help us to demystify the origins of the Spanish Civil War. Franco revealed a mentality characteristic of a military officer who has just 'pronounced' when, a week after the uprising and possessing a curious idea of what civilized countries are, protested, without embarrassment, to a journalist that it was the Republic that, by refusing to surrender, was obliging him to wage war In all civilized countries, when the army has risen against...

In defence of religion

As for religion, we have already said that not one of the edicts of the pronunciamiento mentions it. Mola's communique from Burgos on 23 July -which announced that the Junta de Defensa Nacional de Espa a, presided over by Miguel Cabanellas, the oldest general, was to be constituted that same afternoon - invokes the propositions of reconstruction, order and discipline against the savagery of the mob, but says nothing about religion. Nor, the next day, did the declaration of the Junta de Defensa...

The Easter of the three encyclicals

The 'third way' policy of the Vatican, that is to say one that supported neither Communism nor Fascism, was shown in distinct relief by the almost simultaneous publication in March 1937 of one encyclical against Communism and another against Nazism, which were accompanied by a third concerning the persecution in Mexico. The encyclical Divini Redemptoris, against Communism, is dated 19 March 1937 and appears in Acta Aposto-licae Sedis on 31st of the same month. The Mit brennender Sorge 'With...

The consecration of the pronunciamiento

During the tourist boom of the 1950s and 1960s under the ministry of Fraga Iribarne, a propagandistic slogan, ' Spain is different', was adopted in the hope of attracting foreigners. It referred, quite obviously, to the peculiarities of landscape and typical' customs of Spain. The phrase, however, had not been invented then but had first appeared, I believe, in an allusion to the religious dimension acquired by the Civil War as perceived through the astonished eyes of a group of tourists....