Homestead and Survival Books
In the North, on the other hand, the free states were struggling on several fronts. The so-called Panic of 1857 caused a severe business depression throughout the North. This in turn led Northern political leaders to call for higher tariffs (government-imposed payments) on imported goods and a homestead act that would encourage development of the western territories. But these efforts to reenergize Northern businesses were not popular in the South, and they were stopped by Southern lawmakers and President James Buchanan (17911868), a Pennsylvania Democrat who was friendly to the South.
Another line was recognized by Americans the line of demarcation between East and West based on climate and geography. The Great Plains, formerly described as the Great American Desert, was an arid, flat, inhospitable area, totally unlike anything Americans had experienced between the Atlantic coastline and the Mississippi River. The dividing line was almost arbitrarily set at the 100th meridian, roughly five miles west of Fort Dodge, Kansas, because the average rainfall beyond that longitude measured less than 20 inches per year. Homesteading and town building on the Great Plains represented a whole new phase in the settlement of the West.
Examination of the economy and the nonmilitary Republican legislative agenda. Unlike the Confederacy, the North proved able to outfit and provision its armies while producing ample consumer goods. It accomplished this with only modest inflation and minimal government interference. Labor-saving machines allowed agricultural production to soar despite the absence of hundreds of thousands of men. Water transport increased, and railroads carried far more goods and improved their tracks and rolling stock. The textile industry suffered because of reduced access to southern cotton, but other segments of the industrial economy exceeded prewar production, and mechanization in factories increased. Most of the technology that allowed the economy to do so well was already in place when war broke out. The conflict did mark a radical shift of national wealth toward the North. While the southern economy largely lay in ruins in 1865, northern production was healthy and growing. The Republicans passed...
How the Union and Confederacy paid, or did not pay, for this war played an important role in the nation's economic recovery after secession as well as how urban Americans experienced the war. The federal government that had to that point intruded little on the lives of its individual citizens suddenly became the largest and most dominating economic entity. For the Union, dealing successfully with an economic enterprise never imagined even a year before meant reshaping how the government raised revenue. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, with the help of Philadelphia financier Jay Cooke, developed a play by which the United States would finance the war through the sale of bonds, issuing paper currency known as greenbacks, increasing tariffs and excise taxes, and instituting the nation's first income tax. The Thirty-seventh Congress approved Chase's financial plan and extended the basic framework for the Republican economic program, which was in large part an updated version of...
Drought was almost common on the Great Plains, where less than 20 inches of rain fell in good years. Nevertheless, eager homesteaders disregarded the climatic warning signs as they swarmed over the region after the Civil War. The conventional wisdom, disingenuously encouraged by railroads with land to sell, was Rain follows the plow Turning the soil, planting trees, and other agricultural activities retarded evaporation and thereby shortened the rain cycle. It was all pseudoscience, of course, but it was accepted as gospel by thousands of homesteaders. Drought's effects did not stop with parching the land and withering the crops as one Kansas editor wrote, A drought nourishes chinch bugs, sun-strokes, grasshoppers and profanity.
Citizens of new england and the Midwest were stunned when the Southern states left the Union. Many had believed their family of states would never break up. When Confederates fired on Fort Sumter and the flag of the United States, that shock turned to anger. From Minneapolis to Philadelphia, people shouted for revenge. Men answered President Lincoln's call for army volunteers immediately But unhappy Northerners had to wait for more than two years to hear about a satisfying military victory. Until July, 1863, Union armies were often losers on the battlefield. Through that period, the North's real success was on the homefront. Industries in Northern towns employed extra men and, in some places, allowed women into the workplace. Immigrants kept flowing into towns in Union states, and after President Lincoln signed the Homestead Act of 1862, many others headed west to make new homes on free frontier land. Theater performances, books,
Union soldiers frequently tried to entrap civilians by showing up at their homes pretending to be guerrillas, and then trying to extract information about the whereabouts of real guerrillas or civilian sympathizers. Nor could civilians even be sure of the identity of men in blue by the middle of the war many guerillas had Union uniforms, plundered from supply trains or stripped from dead bodies. Often guerrillas would show up at a homestead dressed in blue and question the residents about
Because Lincoln's renomination was so secure, the convention spent most of its energy reshaping the party's image. One of the major efforts in that direction was the Republicans' christening of themselves as the National Union Party. Union parties had formed at the county and state level since the beginning of the war. Generally conceived of as provisional organizations, they combined people of any political background willing to support the war. Lincoln had endorsed and nurtured these organizations, knowing that they would widen his administration's constituency in the years to come. Few people expected these loose coalitions to last beyond the war, however, so when the Republicans at Baltimore presented themselves as the National Union Party, most observers likewise doubted the staying power of the alliance between regular Republicans and pro-Lincoln War Democrats.28 Yet for many Republicans, the new name reflected a genuine desire to restyle the party that had been created in the...
News of Grant's victory spread from big cities to the most remote homestead. Abolitionists expressed delight that slavery would finally be abolished from America, while Unionists sang and danced to celebrate the restoration of the United States. But most of all, people celebrated because Lee's surrender meant that the long years of violence and bloodshed were finally coming to an end.
In 1843, the popular and ambitious young Democrat was elected to the U.S. Congress. He ended up serving five terms in the House of Representatives. He was best known for his support of the Homestead Act, which would grant 160 acres of public land in the West to any family that wanted to settle it. Many wealthy Southerners and fellow Democrats opposed this idea. Some of them wanted the Western lands for themselves, while others wanted the government to sell the land rather than giving it away. But Johnson felt it was important for poor people to have access to land of their own so that they would be able to improve their lives, as he had done. He continued pushing the bill until it finally passed many years later.
Eliminated state banknotes from circulation. The Union continued to provide for its citizens on the home front by making western lands available to free white settlers in the Homestead Act, and in the Pacific Railroad Act provided governmental support for the construction of the transcontinental railroad that had brought about bleeding Kansas in the mid-1850s.
The Civil War hardly provided a respite from the recurrent warfare that had plagued the Southwest and Plains in the 1850s. Instead, the Indian wars of the antebellum era continued ''while public attention has been completely absorbed with the Rebellion'' (''The Sioux War'' 1863, 695). There, the formal and informal wars waged by the United States and its citizens on Native Americans had little to do with the central issues that elsewhere defined the era of the Civil War. Instead, recurring acts of reciprocal violence resulted as American ranchers, miners, and settlers intruded on Native American territory. The onslaught of new settlers to California and the west in 1849, after the discovery of gold, brought untold disruptions to Native American societies who suffered as western settlers looted their way through their lands and coerced others into providing labor or supplies. In 1866, the Apache leader Cochise remarked that
Citizens of new england and the Midwest were stunned when the Southern states left the Union. Many had believed their family of state would never break up. When Confederates fired on Fort Sumter and the flag of the United States, that shock turned to anger. From Minneapolis to Philadelphia, people shouted for revenge. Men answered President Lincoln's call for army volunteers immediately. But unhappy Northerners had to wait for more than two years to hear about a satisfying military victory. Until July, 1863, Union armies were often losers on the battlefield. Through that period, the North's real success was on the homefront. Industries in Northern towns employed extra men and, in some places, allowed women into the workplace. immigrants kept flowing into towns in Union states, and after President Lincoln signed the Homestead Act of 1862, many others headed west to make new homes on free frontier land. Theater performances, books,
Eliminated state banknotes from circulation. The Union continued to prov ide for its citizens on the home front by making western lands available to free white settlers in the Homestead Act, and in the Pacific Railroad Act provided governmental support for the construction of the transcontinental railroad that had brought about bleeding Kansas in the mid-1850s.
25 of Grandpas Top Tips
Everything from making a Camp Stove that you can Carry in Your Pocket and a Magical Fish Bait Formula to Get the Big Ones! through to How to Make an Emergency Clothes Brush.