Analysis 2 Why And With What Success Did Britain And France Adopt Apolicy Of Nonintervention

This question in turn begs others What is meant by Britain and France By non-intervention By success As will be seen, 'Britain and France' cannot be defined here as one entity pursuing a singular goal. 'Success' can be evaluated with regard to Britain and France themselves to other powers (persuading them, or not, to keep out) and to Spain itself. As for 'non-intervention', W. Foss and C. Gerahty, writing at the height of the Civil War, described it by defining its opposite 'Any assistance of...

Source J Arthur Koestler writing in 1937

The military insurrection broke out on July 18, 1936. Two weeks later the rebels were in possession of a brand-new airfleet of German and Italian planes, manned by German and Italian pilots, mechanics and instructors Italian tanks were already in action at Badajoz Irun was being bombarded by German heavy artillery . . . Technicians also were pouring into the country . . . Italian regular troops landed in Majorca and by the end of October this largest of the Balearic Islands had become virtually...

Analysis 2 What Does The Defence Of Madrid Reveal Of The Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Republic

By November 1936 a number of positive reforms enabled the Republican side to resist more effectively the Nationalist threat to the national capital. Militiamen and women and regular soldiers had pay rises, and a successful recruitment drive had swelled the ranks of the Assault and Civil (now 'Republican National') Guards. A more robust GOC Central Theatre of Operations had been appointed, and the General Staff reorganized to include commanders of the International Brigades and 'Fifth Regiment'....

Intervention And Nonintervention Idealism Or Expediency

Jackson Concise History, p. 168 2. D. Smyth Germany and the onset of the Spanish Civil War, in P. Preston, 3. C. Leitz in P. Preston and A. McKenzie, eds, op. cit., p. 63 4. M. Alpert A New International History of the Spanish Civil War (Basingstoke, 5. P.M.H. Bell The Origins of the Second World War in Europe (London, 2nd 8. H. Thomas op. cit., p. 941 D. Smyth in P. Preston Revolution and War, p. 10. C. Leitz in P. Preston and A. McKenzie, eds, op. cit., p. 72 11. D. Smyth in P. Preston,...

Source C from Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell 1938

The Spanish working class did not, as we might conceivably do in England, resist Franco in the name of 'democracy' and the status quo their resistance was accompanied by - one might almost say it consisted of - a definite revolutionary outbreak. Land was seized by the peasants many factories and most of the transport were seized by the trade unions churches were wrecked and the priests driven out or killed. The Daily Mail, amid the cheers of the Catholic clergy, was able to represent Franco as...

Analysis 2 What Was The Significance Of The Fall Of The Monarchy In 1931

Four days after the municipal elections of April 1931, and two days after the provisional government inaugurated the Second Republic, King Alfonso XIII published his farewell message. This manifesto for the past and future raises several questions about his own role in politics, the position of the monarchy, and the wider nature of Spanish politics. For example, the results of the municipal elections did indeed, as Alfonso maintained, show public alienation from the monarchy, but this was not...

Analysis 1 How Did The International Brigades And The Ussr Affect The Course And Outcome Of The

As has been seen in earlier chapters, the crash of revolution against reaction in the summer of 1936 resonated far beyond Spain. In the process, it produced responses that ranged from the altruistic to the Machiavellian. In the context of the Spanish Civil War, the concept of 'foreign volunteer' embraced a wide variety of beliefs and goals. This discussion will focus on the role of the International Brigades and the USSR, and contrasting views of their impact on the Spanish conflict. The...

Analysis 1 Did The Nationalists Win Or The Republicans Lose The Spanish Civil

This question carries echoes of the Government and Politics 'standard' 'Oppositions do not win elections. Governments lose them.' Discuss. What is inferred is that mistakes on the part of those in power impose the ultimate price defeat. In the context of the Spanish Civil War, did the Republic, through a catalogue of errors, lose to the Nationalists Had it, moreover, seized defeat from the jaws of victory Two hypotheses, admittedly qualified by hindsight, suggest that the Republic might have...

Analysis 1 Why Despite Its Achievements Did The Second Republic Prove So Unstable

Between its birth in April 1931 and March 1939 when its last Prime Minister, Juan Negr n, fell from power, the Second Republic experienced fifteen changes of government. This in itself, however, says nothing specific of individual government tenure, one criterion for 'stability'. Aza a's first stint as Prime Minister, from October 1931, lasted nearly two years at the other extreme, in July 1936 the government of Mart nez Barrio survived for barely twelve hours. Of the eleven peacetime...

Background Narrative

Nineteenth-century Spain was torn apart by two civil wars between rival claimants to the throne. An unstable and shortlived republic February 1873-December 1874 gave way to a constitutional monarchy under Alfonso XII. The 1876 Constitution introduced a bicameral parliament and by 1890 universal male suffrage was established. But, if a new age of political enlightenment seemed at first to be dawning, it was not to be an age of gold in the 'Disaster' year of 1898, the economically valuable...

Analysis 1 What Was The Significance Of German Aid To The Nationalist Side

Some of the reasons for Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy's intervention in the events in Spain from July 1936 were touched on briefly in the two previous chapters. What seems clear, however, is that a Nazi and Italian Fascist presence did not so much start the conflict as play a major role in sustaining it, manipulating and redefining it, and in determining its outcome in Spain, victory for Franco abroad, a deepening gulf with significant qualifications between fascist and anti-fascist powers....

Analysis 1 Why Did The Military Rising Not Achieve Immediate Control Of Spain

Was the failure due to its inability to capture key centres such as Madrid, Bilbao and Santander in the north, Barcelona and Valencia in the east, Badajoz in the west, and M laga and Ja n in the south Indeed, a coordinated enveloping attack on the capital in July 1936 proved impossible. Forty years later, in The Battle for Madrid, the Anglo-Spanish writer and broadcaster George Hills made this point explicit for example, that because of fighting on the northern Basque and Santander fronts, the...

Analysis 2 To What Extent Was Francos Regime Fascist

In November 1936 Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy accorded Franco diplomatic recognition as Chief of State. By January 1938, when by decree he installed his first government, Franco was firmly established as 'National Chief' of the Falange Espa ola Tradicionalista y de las JONS -the monumental 'movement' that was to underpin his dictatorship. In February 1939 Franco's regime was recognized by Britain and France and, on 1 April and with the Caudillo's deceptive termination of the Civil War, by the...

Primary Sources

Although most of Harry Browne's Spain's Civil War 2nd edn, London, 1996 is an established secondary work, the text includes bracketed references to the many document extracts that follow it. In contrast, Patricia Knight's The Spanish Civil War Basingstoke, 1991 is document-centred, with source-related questions at the end of each chapter. Ronald Fraser's Blood ofSpain London, 1979 86 is built on testimony from the 300-plus eyewitnesses he interviewed in the 1970s, interwoven with his own...