Franco And Fascism

1. G. Hills: op. cit., pp. 50-1; P. Preston: Concise History, p. 79

2. S. Payne: Spanish Revolution, p. 349

5. From Spanish Civil War (Granada, 1983). For a summary of conditions besetting the Republican home front, see H. Graham: War, Modernity and reform, pp. 194-6

6. R. Carr: op. cit., p. 683; Pilar Primo de Rivera filmed in 1982 for Spanish

Civil War (Granada, 1983). For a balanced assessment of collectivization, see G. Esenwein and A. Shubert: op. cit., pp. 133-43

7. José Antonio Primo de Rivera speaking in English, c. 1933, from Spanish

Civil War (Granada, 1983)

8. N. Ascherson: Spanish Civil War

11. R. Griffin: The Nature of Fascism (London, 1991), p. 123

12. Falange's Twenty-seven Points, Point III, in A. Kenwood: op. cit., p. 42

13. Chief of State's Inauguration Speech, October 1936, cited in Duchess of

14. M. Richards: Civil War, violence and the construction of Francoism, in

P. Preston and A. McKenzie, eds, op. cit., pp. 204-5

15. P. Preston: Introduction, in P. Preston and A. McKenzie, eds, op. cit., p.

16. E. de Blaye: Franco and the Politics of Spain (Harmondsworth, 1976), p. 459. Quotation is de Blaye's description of Hedilla's successors in the Falange leadership

17. J. Grugel and T. Rees: Franco's Spain (London, 1997), p. 134

18. R. Griffin: op. cit., p. 124; R. Kedward: Fascism in Western Europe 1900

21. D. Mack Smith: Mussolini's Roman Empire (Harmondsworth, 1977), p.

Source A: (i) P. Knight: op. cit., p. 94, and S. Payne: Falange, p. 169; (ii) Author.

Source B: Adapted from Juan J. Linz: An Authoritarian Regime: Spain, in S. Payne, ed., Politics and Society in Twentieth Century Spain (New York, 1976), p. 189. Source C: S. Payne: Falange, p. 180. Source D: Spanish Press Services, Ltd, 1938. Source E: R. Fraser, op. cit., p. 470.

Source F: Ciano's Diary 1939-1943 (London, 1947), pp. 57, 99-100. Source G: M. Foot ('Cassius'): The Trial of Mussolini (London, 1943), pp. 66-7.

Source I: G. Brenan: The Face of Spain (London, 1950), quoted more fully in P. Knight, op. cit., pp. 128-9.

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