Primary Sources

Although most of Harry Browne's Spain's Civil War (2nd edn, London, 1996) is an established secondary work, the text includes bracketed references to the many document extracts that follow it. In contrast, Patricia Knight's The Spanish Civil War (Basingstoke, 1991) is document-centred, with source-related questions at the end of each chapter. Ronald Fraser's Blood ofSpain (London, 1979/86) is built on testimony from the 300-plus eyewitnesses he interviewed in the 1970s, interwoven with his own commentary. In Homage to Catalonia (originally published 1938; Harmondsworth, 1989 edn) George Orwell shares his perceptions of the war in that region and its ramifications, and writes compellingly of his experiences with the POUM militia. Appendix II is a model of vigorous source analysis where Orwell dissects Communist press reports. Penguin Audiobooks have an abridged version of Homage. Many secondhand bookshops have 'search' systems for out-of-print books: David Mitchell's The Spanish Civil War (Granada, 1982), rich in reminiscences, photographs and full-colour posters; Jason Gurney's hard-hitting memoir Crusade in Spain (London, 1974), and Franz Borkenau's perceptive The Spanish Cockpit (London, 1937) are well worth rooting out. Gerald Brenan credited Franz Borkenau with a role in inspiring his 1943 book The SpanishLabyrinth (Cambridge, 2nd edn, 1950; since 1993 with a foreword by Raymond Carr). It has brief but valuable comment on the war, but most of it is on long- and short-term background. This includes the Primo de Rivera dictatorship (1923-30). The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse (Valentine Cunningham, ed., Harmondsworth, 1996) has a useful in-depth introduction and includes Louis MacNeice's haunting 'And I Remember Spain'. A different concept is The Spanish Civil War: A Cultural and Historical Reader (A. Kenwood, ed., Oxford, 1993) which features 'responses' to the war, including Hispanic, British and American, in reportage, novels and poems. It also has political documents. In Brother against Brother (Robert Stradling, ed., Stroud, 1998) Frank Thomas relates his experiences fighting for the Nationalists.

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