Secondary Sources

Of the general surveys, Martin Blinkhorn's Democracy and Civil War in Spain (London, 1988) is succinct and clearly ordered. Paul Preston's Concise History of the Spanish Civil War (London, 1996) is a vivid evocation of the background and the conduct of the war itself, with an indispensable bibliographical essay. Patricia Knight's The Spanish Civil War is a recent contribution to the Access to History series (London, 1998).

Of the more in-depth accounts, Hugh Thomas's The Spanish Civil War (Harmondsworth, 3rd edn, 1977) also has useful preface, footnotes, maps and appendices. More recent are Raymond Carr's Spanish Tragedy: The Civil War in Perspective (London, 1993) and George Esenwein and Adrian Shubert's Spain at War (London, 1995), which considers long-term tensions in Spain and the degree of unity on the Republican and Nationalist sides. On the Second Republic, see Paul Preston's The Coming of the Spanish Civil War (London, 2nd edn, 1994), with close analysis of grassroots conflicts and the splits bedevilling the PSOE; and Stanley G. Payne's Spain's First Democracy, The Second Republic 1931-1936 (Wisconsin, 1993). Raymond Carr's Spain 1808-1975 (Oxford, 1982) combines breadth with depth and places the Republic in a longer-term perspective. On Republican politics and the Civil War there is Helen Graham's Socialism and War: The Spanish Socialist Party in Power and Crisis 1936-39 (Cambridge, 1991), which examines how the Republican conduct of the war was undermined by power struggles involving the PSOE and the PCE. Falange: A History of Spanish Fascism by Stanley G. Payne (Stanford, 1961) has many primary-source quotations. While Michael Alpert's A New International History of the Spanish Civil War (Basingstoke, 1994) confronts the contradictions of the Non-intervention Committee and the behaviour of its members, in Arms to Spain: The Untold Story of the Spanish Civil War (London, 1998) Gerald Howson considers arms sales to the Republic. Tom Buchanan's Britain and the Spanish Civil War (Cambridge, 1997) analyses such issues as the stance of political parties, volunteers in Spain and the press. James K. Hopkins's Into the Heart of the Fire: The British in the Spanish Civil War (Stanford, 1998) draws on newly opened Russian archives and explores the wide range of identities of British volunteers. Interesting on American intellectuals and the war is James R. Mellow's Ernest Hemingway: A Life without Consequences (London, 1993).

Collections of essays include Paul Preston, ed., Revolution and War in Spain 1931-1939 (London, 1984) and Paul Preston and Anne L. McKenzie, eds., The Republic Besieged: Civil War in Spain 1936-1939 (Edinburgh, 1996). Also useful is Martin Blinkhorn, ed., Spain in Conflict 1931-39: Democracy and its Enemies (Wisconsin, 1986). A clear thematic survey of the Francoist system is Franco's Spain by Jean Grugel and Tim Rees (London, 1997). Biographies which complement each other are Franco by Sheelagh Ellwood and Paul Preston (both London, 1993). Paul Preston's collection Comrades! Portraits from the Spanish Civil War (London, 1999) includes essays on the Primo de Rivera siblings, Pilar and José Antonio. Arachnophiles will find websites to explore, for example, on posters in the Southworth Spanish Civil War Collection.

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