Source D writing in exile exForeign Minister Julio Alvarez del Vayo defends the Republic

With the exception of this spontaneous and natural mobilization of the masses to demand an amnesty, nothing happened until the month of July to justify the accusations of anarchy and chaos levelled against the Government, by the Fascist conspirators the better to cloak their own subversive activities. What did happen was, in fact, largely a concomitant of the preparations for the rebellion which were going on actively from the week following the elections. Agents provocateurs abounded . . . Moreover, there was complicity on the part of many men in Governmental agencies, civil governors, Civil Guard commanders, and others who, charged with the sacred duty of keeping order, connived at provoking disorder . . . But the violence of these months has been greatly exaggerated and repeatedly men line Gil Robles and Calvo Sotelo, engaged in actively preparing the rebellion, stood up in Parliament and read inflated lists of church burnings and other supposed outbreaks as a part of their revolutionary propaganda . . .

Neither could the Right-wing extremists at that time bring any allegations of diabolic influence against the Soviet Embassy, for there was no Soviet ambassador in Spain, nor had there ever been one since the Russian Revolution.

Source E: Poem on the Antiquity of Spain (A Russian Tank in Castile) by the Falangist poet Agustín de Foxá, published 1940.

Russian tanks, Siberian snows,

In these noble Spanish fields,

What hope has the poppy against your cold bulk?

What can the poplar by the river oppose to your fury?

We still had oxen and wooden ploughs.

Castile is not scientific; no factories are

Raised on her soil; her clay produces, like Athens,

Theogonies and olive trees, battles, kings and gods . . .

To win Spain, you have to say, like Christ:

'My kingdom is not of this world'; don't raise sickles

Or promise the body earthly paradises,

For in Spain voices surge forth from the sepulchres.

Because there are genealogy, race and prayers,

Because the child who is born is already 2,000 years old

And, with the demeanour of kings, his shepherds rule.

Come, Russian chariots, ugly machines,

Animals without blood, mate or sweat.

With a little fire, just as someone burns a tree, In your heavy tracks you'll be brought to a halt. And the earth will cover you and the rain and the ants, The lark of the skies and the flowers of the fields. And as your rust returns to the land Castile will again fill her horizon with Saints.


1. Define (i) 'Congress of the Godless' (Source B); (ii) 'agents provocateurs'

2. Considering the language and tone of Source A, how does Franco seek to persuade Spaniards that the Nationalist cause is their cause? (5)

3. How reliable do you consider Source C as an assessment of political allegiances in Spain in 1936? (4)

*4. Discuss the ways in which the author of Source E contrasts Spanish tradition and Hispanidad with the 'alien' presence of Russia and Marxism. (6) 5. Making use of the sources and your own knowledge, how important, and how convincing, was the 'threat of communism' in explaining support for the Nationalist cause? (7)

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