Source H Franz Borkenau on the April 1931 municipal elections

The polls demonstrated . . . facts of primary importance for the future. The revolutionary movement had hardly yet reached the countryside; the peasant was untouched; which meant, after all, that it had no deep roots in Spain as a whole. The countryside still obeyed the caziques [sic] and the aristocrats and voted monarchist. But . . . with two or three exceptions, all the provincial capitals voted for the united list forwarded by the coalitions of those parties that had signed the pact of San Sebastian. The monarchy had been optimistic; the result came as a terrible shock. The results in Barcelona were decisive. There everybody had expected the success of the Lliga; the Esquerra came in with an overwhelming majority. A few hours later Macia proclaimed the independent Catalan republic. The only possible help lay in the military. But the generals saw no reason to defend Alphonso, whom they had learned to hate . . . [The King] issued a pathetic proclamation that he resigned in order to spare the country civil war.

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