Source I from Volunteers in Spain Twelve Sublime Months by Andr Marty 1937

A political section with its own Press services, communiqu├ęs, literature in twelve languages and its system of political soldier-militants . . . From the Casa del Campo (Madrid) to Andujar (Cordoba), from Guadalajara to Belchite, from Almeria to the Jarama River, there was not a single battle in which the Internationals did not take part . . . The Spanish Republic would long ago have been crushed but for the creation of a great popular army directed by a sole command. The International Brigades have been one of the bases for this new army, thanks to their high technical qualifications and strong discipline . . .

The Communists can be proud . . . In the course of twelve months they have been the worthy members of this workers' revolutionary party of a new type, the Bolshevik world party . . . they are now the worthy children of that party which, formed and directed by the greatest brains of to-day, Lenin and Stalin, has upset the whole world. Yfes, all are worthy of the great George Dimitrov . . . Every international volunteer is a centre of organization and unity; he is more precious than ever . . . They have accomplished their duty . . . North Americans, Canadians, Africans, French . . . all of them are here.


1. Explain the references to (a) Dachau (Source G); (b) Dimitrov (Source I). (2)

2. What can be inferred from Source F of the motives and morale of Lee and his comrades, and how far does Source G contradict these inferences? (7)

*3. How authoritative do you find Source H as an evocation of Spain through the eyes of an American? (4)

4. What issues are raised by the origins and content of Source I? (4)

5. Using all these sources and your own knowledge, what conclusions can be drawn about the experiences of left-wing volunteers in Spain? (8)

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