Source I Minister of War Manuel Azana speaking in July 1931

A year ago today the forces that prepared and brought about the revolution had still not come to agreement. Three months ago the limping monarchy was still trying to aim its weapons against us. And three days ago, after the Spanish people had said let there be a republic and the Republic had been born [in April 1931], three days ago we went to the Constituent Cortes and told them: 'Here are the powers that the republican people delegated to us' . . .

Some might wish to rub out the memory of December like a bad dream . . . But it does not embarrass me at all, as a member of the government, in a difficult and sensitive post, it does not embarrass me at all to invoke the memory of the December revolution which was the starting point for the victorious vote of April. ('Hear, hear.' Loud applause.) The vote of April did no more than corroborate and sanction within the legality of the polls the effort and the propaganda of the martyrs for freedom of December, morally victorious if apparently defeated . . .

And I say here, friends and co-religionists, from my sensitive position of power that this memory does not embarrass me at all, because I have always and still do maintain that against tyranny everything is permissible and no law is binding. Just as I maintain that against the revolution that has now become the Republic by sanction of popular elections nothing is permissible that steps outside legal channels. (Long and loud applause.)

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