Source J Arthur Koestler writing in 1937

The military insurrection broke out on July 18, 1936.

Two weeks later the rebels were in possession of a brand-new airfleet of German and Italian planes, manned by German and Italian pilots, mechanics and instructors; Italian tanks were already in action at Badajoz; Irun was being bombarded by German heavy artillery . . . Technicians also were pouring into the country . . . Italian regular troops landed in Majorca: and by the end of October this largest of the Balearic Islands had become virtually an Italian possession. Week by week the number of foreigners in the rebel army grew.

On November 18, by which time the capital and three fifths of Spain were in the hands of the constitutionally elected Government, Germany and Italy proclaimed General Franco ruler of Spain.

During the winter months of 1936-7, Italy landed 85-90,000 infantry in Spain, while Germany took over various specialised technical functions in the rebel army: motor transport, tanks and antitank guns, anti-aircraft guns, coastal batteries, and heavy artillery. On February 9, 1937, the Italians captured Malaga . . . The Spanish War is for the dictatorships in many respects a dress rehearsal for the world war for which it is preparing the way.


1. For the Nationalists, what was the significance of the Republicans' loss of:

2. How does Source G make more explicit German anxieties suggested in the latter part of Source F? (3)

3. How convincing an assessment of the situation in Spain is provided by Source H? (4)

*4. Study Source J. In what seems to be a largely factual account of Italian and German intervention, how might the reader detect an underlying purpose on the part of the writer? (5) 5. How adequate are these sources in explaining the motivation and impact of Italian and German intervention in Spain up to March 1937? (9)

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