1. G. Hills: The Battle for Madrid (London, 1976), p. 26
4. See, for example, S. Ellood: Franco (London, 1993), pp. 52-8
6. M. Alpert: Soldiers, politics and war, in P. Preston, ed., Revolution and
8. P. Preston: A Concise History of the Spanish Civil War (London, 1996), p. 31
9. P. Preston: Franco, p. 146; H. Thomas: op. cit., p. 95; G. Hills, op. cit., pp.
10. P. Preston: Coming of the Spanish Civil War, p. 201
12. S. Payne: Spanish Revolution, p. 205
13. R. Fraser: Blood of Spain (London, 1994 edn), p. 568; Preston, Coming of the Spanish Civil War, p. 189
14. G. Esenwein and A. Shubert: op. cit., pp. 73, 69
15. Students may wish to research Koestler's political background further as he is a key source for this period. Source A: B. Crozier: Franco, A Biographical History (London, 1967), p. 513. Source B: From an English edition of the 'Joint Letter of the Spanish Bishops to the Bishops of the Whole World Concerning the War in Spain', published by the Catholic Truth Society (London, 1937). Source C: Harold G. Cardozo: March of a Nation - My Year of Spain's Civil
War (London, 1937), pp. 150-1, 153. Source D: Julio Alvarez del Vayo: Freedom's Battle (London, 1940), pp. 245, 28.
Source E: Translated by A. Kenwood, in A. Kenwood, ed., op. cit., pp. 901.
Source F: Goronwy Rees: Europe and Spain (7.8.36), in Charles Moore and Christopher Hawtree, eds, 1936, As Recorded by the Spectator (London, 1986).
Source G: In D. Smyth: Reflex Reaction - Germany and the Onset of the Spanish
Civil War, in P. Preston, ed., Revolution and War, p. 253. Source H: P. Knight: The Spanish Civil War (Basingstoke, 1991), p.65.
Source I: Quoted in P. Preston: Mussolini's Spanish adventure: from limited risk to war, in P. Preston and A. McKenzie (eds), The Republic Besieged (Edinburgh, 1996), pp. 48-9. Source J: A. Koestler: op. cit., pp. 96-7, 146.
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