The Buckeye State contributed several Irish-American units. Ir volunteer militia companies - the Montgomery Guards (Co D) Dayton, and the Hibernian Volunteers (Co F) from Cleveland -joined Col Alexander M. McCook's 1st Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment, recruited for 90 days in April 1861 and sent by rail to Washington. They were present at First Bull Run in July, but were only lighdy engaged. In August 1861 the regiment was reorganized for three years' service, under Col Benjamin F. Smith. The 1st Ohio served in the Western theater; it fought at Shiloh, Stones River. Chickamauga (in 3rd Bde, 2nd Div, XX Corps), and in the Atlanta campaign.

Companies in the 1st Ohio left the state unarmed and dressed generally in dark blue forage caps, frock coats and pants (state militia dress, based on US Army uniform) or in civilian clothes. In May 1861 they received their first uniforms while in Philadelphia: dark blue fatigue blouses (similar to US Army sack coats), gray pants, red shirts, black felt hats turned up and fastened with a gilt bugle-and-eagle badge, and black overcoats. The following month they were issued US regular infantry clothing: dark blue Ml858 forage caps with white havelocks, dark blue four-button sack coats and pants, and light brown blankets. Arms were "bright barreled" rifled percussion muskets. Enlisted men wore black cartridge boxes, cross belts and waist belts, with brass belt plates displaying "OVM"; canteens were covered with gray cloth.

Irish native Joseph W. Burke played a key role in organizing the 10th Ohio Infantry (Montgomery Regiment), an Irish-majority unit from Cincinnati, which fought at Perryville, Stones River and Chickamauga. An Irish flag, said to be green with a Maid of Erin in gold, was presented to the regiment in May 1861. The 10th Ohio was armed with M1842 muskets, exchanged for Enfield rifles in 1863, and wore regular US infantry clothing: dark blue kepis or black felt hats, dark blue fatigue blouses, and sky-blue or gray pants.

Joseph Walter Burke 10th Ohio

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