Plate Commentaries

The Columbian Artillery's lineage dated back to 1789. but the company was disbanded in 1855 in the wake of anti-Irish hysteria. This private wears the company's black bearskin cap and dark blue uniform with red trim. A2: Captain, Montgomery Guard, 11th Regiment New York State Militia, 1855 One of the many Irish volunteer militia companies that proliferated in the city during the 1850s. the Montgomery Guard was one of several (in both Northern and Southern states) to be named for Gen Richard Montgomery, an Irisb-American officer killed in the unsuccessful assault on Quebec in December 1775. Irish companies were formed into several regiments in the New York State Militia. The Irish Volunteers wore shakos with white plumes, green coatees with white trim, and light blue pants with white stripes. A detachment of Lancers was decked out in czapkas with green plumes, green jackets, and sky-blue pants with yellow stripes. The Irish Dragoons wore crested metal helmets with white plumes, green jackets with gold trim, and sky-blue pants

A3: Corporal, 69th Regiment New York State Militia, 1860

The 69th New York was outfitted in the state's regulation dress uniform adopted in 1858. The dark blue cloth shako bore a green-over-red pompon, and a brass plate with the regimental crest (in this case Irish wolfhounds with the numeral "69" in the center). This corporal wears a dark blue frock coat, cut longer than usual, with crimson chevrons, epaulettes and trim: his sky-blue pants have a narrow crimson welt. The gilt waist belt plate is stamped "NATIONAL CADETS" (a nickname for the 69th) with the company letter in

A4: 69th NYSM "Prince of Wales flag"

The inscriptions read "PRESENTED TO THE 69th REGIMENT and "IN COMMEM-MORATION OF THE 11th OCT.

This unidentified member of the 37th New York State Milit ■ gray as three-button cuff flap in broad stripes on the t (US Army Mil Hist Inst)


Two zouave companies, the Tiger Zouaves and Baker Guard Zouaves (named for Col Edward D. Baker, the brigade commander killed in his disastrous action at Ball's Bluff, Virginia), were attached to this regiment in October 1861. Serving as flanking companies, they wore blue zouave jackets trimmed with green, sky-blue vests and full-cut pants, and blue kepis. This plate is based on an image of Lt Anthony McDermott of Company I.

B2: Corporal, 23rd Illinois Infantry Regiment ("Irish Regiment"), 1861

This distinctive uniform was issued by Cook County to the 23rd Illinois when the regiment was organized in June 1861: green trim on the dark blue shell jackets and green stripes on the gray pants provided the Gaelic touches. After the regiment was reorganized in January 1862. the 23rd Illinois was issued the state blue fatigue uniform (dark blue kepis, dark blue nine-button shell jackets, and sky-blue pants): and after July 1862, the troops adopted US regular infantry uniforms. Both Enfield rifles and Henry repeating rifles were issued.

B3: Private, 69th Regiment New York State Militia, 1861

The "Fighting Sixty-Ninth" was enlisted for 90 days' service at the start of the Civil War, and established a solid reputation for itself at the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. Enlisted men went into battle wearing a mixture of straw hats, dark blue kepis (with or without white havelocks), and dark blue state fatigue jackets with red trim. In the extreme heat, many discarded their jackets and fought in their red or gray flannel shirts and sky-blue pants. One company (Co K, Meagher's Zouaves) wore dark blue kepis, dark blue jackets with red lace, light blue pants, and a green sash.

CI: First Sergeant, 35th Indiana Infantry Regiment ("1st Irish Regiment"), 1862

The senior NCO of his company wears the dark green kepi with gold rth that distinguished his uniform is typical of early-war Indiana units. The regiment's distinctive Irish flag (inset) was presented to the 35th Indiana in December 1861. C2: Musician, 9th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, 1862 The 9th Massachusetts initially received the gray fatigue jackets issued by the state to its regiments early in the war. Most (if not all) of the gray flannel blouses or jackets were edged with red lace:

light gray felt hats and gray overcoats were also issued. US regulation infantry clothing arrived in the fall of 1861, but musicians in the regiment continued wearing gray jackets, pants and caps.

C3: Lieutenant, Company B (Hibernian Guards), 8th Ohio Infantry Regiment, 1862

Captain William Kenney's Hibernian Guards from Cleveland became Co B, 8th Ohio, organized in May 1861. regular US infantry clothing, the Hibernians v as skirmishers for the regiment and v rifles. They left a record of distinguished service with the Army of the Potomac; the 8th Ohio sustained close to 50 percent casualties at Antietam, fighting at the Sunken Road, and at Gettysburg they helped to repulse Pickett's Charge. An image of Capt James K. O'Reilly of Co B provided the model for this plate.

01: Private, 164th New York Infantry Regiment ("Buffalo Irish Regiment"), 1863

Recruited from the town of Buffalo, the 164th New York received the Hawkins' Zouaves uniform of the 9th New York in February 1863 and. unlike most zouave units, continued wearing it until late in the war. The green tassel on the dark blue fez distinguished them as an Irish command. D2: Sergeant, 28th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, 1862

The 28th Massachusetts was the only Irish Brigade regiment to carry its green flag into the attack on Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862; the Gaelic inscription "nam nar dhruid o shaim lann" translates as "Who Never Retreated from the Clash of >

Spears." Leading the brigade's attack on >

the stone wall, the 28th Massachusetts lost 158 men killed and wounded out of 416 - the greatest number of casualties it would lose in a single day during the war. The Irish Brigade wore greatcoats during the attack, but dumped their packs; to distinguish them as Irish, they were instructed to wear sprigs of green box leaves on their caps. D3: Lieutenant-Colonel, 63rd New York Infantry Regiment, 1863

A component of the Irish Brigade, the 63rd New York wore regulation US infantry uniforms, although soldiers of this regiment seemed to prefer black felt hats over the forage cap. The 63rd New York carried the same flag as the 69th New York. The red shamrock on

Dark blue frock coat of the 20th

1858 and worn (minus the shoulder scales) In the early months of the Civil War as a campaign uniform. The buttons

1858 and worn (minus the shoulder scales) In the early months of the Civil War as a campaign uniform. The buttons

this officer's hat signifies that the Irish Brigade was part of the Army of the Potomac's II Corps; such corps badges came into use in the spring of 1863.

E1: Corporal, Company C (Montgomery Guard), 1st Regiment Virginia Volunteer Militia, 1859

The dress uniform of this Richmond militia company was out in detail in 1850. The green-over-buff pompon on ilaced by a white feather plume. The Montgomery Guard, formed by Irish immigrants, was one of the most dependable companies in the 1st Virginia Infantry. E2: Lieutenant, Company A or B (Irish Jasper Greens), 1st Regiment Georgia Volunteer Militia, 1860

This Savannah company dated from 1842 (see flag, inset), and its original uniforms were green coats and pants with buff facings and trim. Later the Irish Jaspers adopted blue coatees with green trim, and pants were dark blue with green stripes edged in buff. Officers of several pre-war militias wore sleeve chevrons. The fatigue uniform substituted dark blue kepis with a green cap band and "IJG" insignia, and dark blue ten-button shell jackets with shoulder straps, green collars and pointed cuffs. Buttons featured an Irish harp surmounted by an eagle and the initials "UG"; belts were black, with oval plates bearing the "UG" cypher. E3: Private, Montgomery Guards, 17th Regiment South Carolina Volunteer Militia, 1860 A component of Charleston's volunteer militia, the Montgomery Guards was organized in 1860 under Capt . James Conner, later a brigadier-general wounded at ^ Gaines' Mill. A fatigue uniform adopted in December 1860 consisted of kepis, gray frock coats or jackets and pants with green trim. The dress uniform was a dark blue cloth shako with dark green band, brass eagle cap badge above the initials "M.G." and a white cock's-feather plume; a dark green single-breasted coatee with three rows of nine white metal front buttons, and two silver braid buttonholes on each side of the collar; and light blue pants with a 1 silver stripe.

F1: Captain, Company C (Sarsfield Southrons), 22nd Mississippi Infantry Regiment, 1861

Captain Felix Hughes, a prominent Irish immigrant planter, raised this Vicksburg company, which later fought at Shiloh. The company's flag was a First National pattern with a golden harp in the center bar, surrounded by dark green magnolia tree leaves and white magnolia flowers. Inscribed on vhite scrolls in gold letters were 'Vicksburg". "Sarsfield Southrons", and "Faugh A Ballagh." Hughes, in temporary command of the 22nd Mississippi, was killed in action at Baton Rouge on August 5. 1862. There was also a strong Irish

presence in Companies D & I of this regiment. This plate is based on a portrait of Hughes now in the Old Court House Museum, Vicksburg.

F2: First Sergeant, Company I (Emerald Guards), 8th Alabama Infantry Regiment, 1861

Formed from Irish members of a volunteer fire company in Mobile, the Emerald Guards became the color company for the 8th Alabama, a unit which saw intense combat with the Army of Northern Virginia. They left the Gulf City carrying a distinctive Irish green flag and dressed in green uniforms, which they exchanged for gray jackets with green trim in Virginia. The Emerald Guards' captain. Patrick Loughry, was cut down at Seven Pines during the Peninsula campaign of May/June 1862.

F3: Private, 2nd Tennessee Infantry Regiment ("Irish Regiment"), 1861

With Irish-American companies like the Emerald Guards (Co H) and the Carroll Guards (Co I), Memphis made considerable efforts at the beginning of the war to provide clothing for the city's troops. Local women's aid societies supplied uniforms to practically all the new volunteer companies through the summer months of 1861, until the state quartermaster department was up and running. These initial uniforms quickly wore out. and the state began furnishing clothing in the fall of 1861. Like a number of other units, the 2nd Tennessee probably received grayish-brown ("butternut") nine-button frock coats with black collars and pointed cuffs with a distinctive arrangement of buttons: grayish-brown pants with black stripes; and gray forage caps with black bands.

G1: Musician, 6th Louisiana Infantry Regiment ("Irish Brigade"), 1862

Over half the soldiers in this regiment were Irish-bom. Distinctively dressed at first, companies went through their first issue of clothing fairly quickly, and they probably received state clothing in the fall of 1861. Richard Taylor described his brigade in early 1862 as wearing "fresh clothing of gray with white gaiters." This musician wears a Richmond Depot Type I shell jacket, issued to many units in the Army of Northern Virginia in 1862. G2: Sergeant, Company D (Napoleon Grays), 15th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, 1862 Rough-hewn Irish riverboat men from the boisterous Mississippi river town of Napoleon. Arkansas, dominated

Obverse and reverse of the silver medal awarded to the Jefferson Davis Guards (Co F, 1st Texas Heavy Artillery Regt), the only unit to be awarded such a decoration by the Confederate government. The medal was suspended from a green ribbon, and engraved "D G" and "Sabine Pass, Sept 8th, 1863." (Courtesy William J. Bozic, Jr)

this company in the 15th Arkansas, led by "Old Pat" Cleburne before he rose to command first a brigade, and then a division. They became one of his most dependable skirmisher companies, seeing heavy combat at Shiloh and Perryville. Their gray shell jackets were of Columbus Depot Type I pattern, and their sky-blue trousers and Federal accoutrements came to them by the capture of US supplies at Richmond. Kentucky. G3: Corporal, 10th Tennessee Infantry Regiment ("Sons of Erin"), 1861 Colonel Randal W. McGavock, the mayor of Nashville, purchased uniforms for men of his regiment in September 1861: gray kepis, jackets and pants, all with scarlet trim. The unit's green flag (inset) featured a gold Irish harp, with the inscriptions "Sons of Erin" and "Go Where Glory Waits You." The Sons of Erin were initially armed with flintlocks.

H1: Captain, Company F ("Fighting Irish Company"), 5th Missouri Infantry Regiment,


The Missouri brigade received new uniforms in late December 1862, and members of this outstanding skirmisher company began the New Year in gray caps, gray jackets with light blue trim, and gray pants. They would trade in their Springfields for Enfield rifles in May 1863. Officers were dressed in standard Confederate infantry frock coats. A portrait of the much-wounded Missouri brigade officer Capt Joseph Boyce provides the model for this plate. H2: Sergeant, Company F (Jefferson Davis Guards), 1st Texas Heavy Artillery Regiment,


This sergeant in Lt Richard Dowling's Davis Guards examines the silver medal awarded to members of the company by the Confederate Congress for "one of the most brilliant and heroic achievements in the history of this war" - their defense of Sabine Pass. The company's standard artillery caps and frock coats came from the Houston clothing depot. H3: Corporal, 1st Virginia Infantry Battalion ("Irish Battalion"), 1865

During the Army of Northern Virginia's hard-pressed retreat west from Petersburg in April 1865, this corporal wears captured US equipment with his gray jacket and pants, part of the extensive shipments of clothing received by Lee's army from Peter Tait & Co of Limerick. Ireland. The Irish Battalion served as the provost guard for the Army of Northern Virginia.

H4: Flag, Company E, (Montgomery Guards), 22nd Georgia Artillery Battalion

This cross-pole flag, presented by the Sisters of Mercy and carried at Fort Pulaski in March 1862. measured 36in x 49in, with 4in gold fringes.


Figure» in bold rHn tn illustrations.

Beard. (apt James II. 36 Bendon. Pvt John J. II Blunt. Ma|C¿en James G. 6 Bragg, C¿en Braxton 7. 18 Bull Run. 1st hauled 12. 15 Bull Run. 2nd battle tA 10. 24 Burle. Col Joseph \V. 15.16

GahiH. Col Thomas 5. 6 Canada 4.V44 Cas». Col Thomas 8 casualties SS. 42 Cedar Creek, hat lie of 5 Chicago 6 Civil War effects of on Irish 42-44 Cleburne. MajCen Patrick Ronayne 18. JO. 21. 39. 43 Cobb. Gen Thomas 12 Cocn. t'-pljohn P. 7 Cold Harbor, battle of 13 Coleman. Cpl Roheil S7 Confederate Armv 18-42 Alabama 18-20. 19 Arkansas 20-22 dnimmer 23 (¿eorgu 22-24

Missouri 36-37

North Carolina 37

Sooth Carolina 37-39

Tennessee 36,37.38, 39-40

Texas 40

mcdab awarded to Jefferson Davis Guard* 47 Virginia .39. 40. 40-42. 41 Cook Countv 6. 7

Corcoran. Col Michael 6. 10. 13. IS. 16. 43 Cooghltn. ljCail John II

Doolcy. la John Edward 40

Fagan. Col James 21 Fagan. Lt William L 18 Fenians 43, 43-44

A4(25. 45) Fleming. |J Jame* 12 Fra/ier. (apt Charle* W. 36 Fredericksburg. battle of 4. 12. 22. 42

Gaines- Mill, battle of 9 Grant. Gen Ulysses S. IS Griffin. Capt Patrick M. 38 Culney. Col Patrick R. 9

Hcah. LtCol John G. 5 lleenan, Dennis 16 Hill. Gen A.P. 9. 10 Horner, (apt George 41

immigration of Irish to US 3—1 Irish in the Confedenu-v 18 effects of Cavil War on 42-44 Fenians 4S. 43-14 nationalist sentiments 4

Kane. Col Thomas L. 16 Kelly. Pvt Patrick 10

Ungan. Cjpt James S5 lamergan. Capt John 17

McCabe. U Bernard 8 McCluskv. Col John 8 McCunn. Ca>l john H. 14

McMahon. Col James P. IS "

McMillan. Cail Robert 12-13

Memphis 18

militia forces 3-4, 4

Missionan Ridge, battle of 7, 21

Mitchell. Jr.. John 18

Molxlc 18

Monaghan. Col William S3 Monteith. Col William 9 Moon-. Col Patrick T. 39 Mulholland. Col St. Clair A. 17. 17 Mullen. Col Bernard F. 7. 8 Mulligan. Cad Jame* A. 6.7

New Orleans 18 New York 4

O'Meara. Cx>l Timothy 7 O'Neill. John 44

Person. Maj R.J. S7 Pratt. Col George 15 Price. BrigCien Sterling 6

Red River campaign 8 R<»sr< tans. Ma|C>cn William S. 7

St. Patrick's Cathedral. New York 42 Sheiman. On William T. 7 slavery 42 Smith, ( apt W.E. 37 Spier. BrigCrt-n Samuel 44 Strong. Col llenn S3 Sweeties. Cien Thomas 43 Swift Creek. battle of II

Tyrrell. Ll William H. 16



1st .Alabama Infantry 19 1st ArLinui Infantry 21 1st (Georgia Volunteers 22 1st Louisiana Infantry 24 1st la>uisiana Regular Inlantrv 34 1st lxniisiana Special Infantn Battalion 33 1st Missouri Infantn Regiment 36 1st Regiment (Georgia Volunteer Militia E2i 29. 46)

1st Regiment of Virginia Volunteers 40—II 1st Regiment Virginia Volunteer Militia El

1st Texas Heavy Artillers Regiment H2(32. 47)

1st Virginia Infantrv Battalion H3(32. 47). 40. 41

2nd Tennessee Infantry Regiment FSiSO. 47). 39

5th Confederate Infantry 36. S7

5th Missouri Infantrv Regiment HI (32. 47)

6th I/Mitsiana Infantrv Regiment Gl(31. 47). 33

7th Ijouisiana Infantry Regiment 33

8th Alabama Infanuy Regiment 18. F2(30. 47)

9th Mississippi Inlantrv Regiment 35

10th Mississippi Infantry Regiment 35

10th Tennessee liilanus Regiment G3(3I.47).S8

13th I oumana Infantn Regiment 34-35

14th I oiitsiana Sharpshooters 35. 35

15th Arkansas Infantry Regiment 21-22.

G2(31. 47) 17th Regiment South Carolina Volunteer

Militia £3(29.46) 18th Arkansas Infantn 20 22nd Georgia Anillen Battalion 114(32. 47) 22nd Mississippi Infantrv Regiment Fl(30. 46-47)

154th Tennessee Infantry 39 Arkansas Brigade 22 Armv of Georgia 23 CockrcH's Mivwmn brigade 37 Emerald Caiards 19 Emmet Guards (Alabama) 20 Emmet Guards (Iaxiisuuia i 24

Emmet Cnurds i Missouri) 36 Emmet CUiards (Virginia) 41 Havs' hisli Louisiana Bugade S4 I rish Jas|ie r C ¿ire ns 22 Jackson Guards 23-24 Lochrane Guards 23 Montgomen Guards 19. 24 North Carolina S7 Republican Blues 23 South Carolina 37-39 St. Louis Grass 36 Starke's lx>uistana Brigade 24 Washington Blurs 36 Washington C ¿turds 36 Unionist S

1st Ohio Voluutarv Infantn Regiment 15 8th Ohio Infantn Regiment CS( 27. 46) 9th Connecticut Infantry 5-6. 6, 7 9th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment 9. 9. II.

C2(27. 45-46) 10th Ohio Infantn Regiment 15. 16 13th Vermont Intantrv 17 15th Maine Infantn Regiment 8 20th New York State Militia 15.15. 46 23rd Illinois Infantrv Regiment 6. 7. 82(26. 45) 28th Massachusetts Infantiy Regiment 10, 12.

35th liiduna Infantn Regiment 7-8. 8. CI

37th New York State Militia 45

42nd Pennsylvania Inlantn Regiment 16

63rd New York Inlantn Regiment 14, DS

69th New York Slate Militia IS. A3(25. 45) With Pennsylvania Infantn Regiment 16.

Bit26. 45)

69th Regimental New York State Militia B3

75th New York State Militia 14 80th New York Volunteer Infantrv 14 90th Illinois (Irish l-egion) Regiment 7 116th Pennsybania Regiment 16. 16-17. 17 164th New York Infantn Regiment 13-14. 14.

D1 (28. 46) Alabama rifles 20

Brooklsn's Nappci lamb Light Artillery 11 Columbian Artillery. Massachusetts Volunteer Militia 8.AM25.45)

Montgomery Guard. 11 th New York State Militia A2(25. 45) New York 11-15 Unionist armv 4-17 1st Irish Brigade 4. 4

Requiem Mass for 42 9th Regimental Connecticut Volunteers, New

Haven monument 44 20th New York State Militia (Ulster Guard) 5. 15 37th New York (Irish Rifles) 5 63rd New York Regiment 14 69th New York Regiment/State Volunteers 12 Connecticut .V-6. 6 CVircoran's Irish I rgion 5. 14 Illinois regiments 5. 6-7 bid una regiments 5. 7-8 Lochrane (>iuuli 22 Maine 8

Massac husetts 4. 5. 8-10. 9 MivvHin regiments 5. 10 New England regiments 5 New Hampshire 5. 11 New York 4. 11-15. IS. 14.45 Ohio regiments 5. 15. 16 Pennsylvania regiments 4. 5. 15-17 Shields C ¿turds 6 Vermont 17

Wisconsin regiments 5. 17 weapons muskets: .58 rifled 34; .69 smoothbore 34: M1841 rifled S3: MI842 rifled 10. 17. 22. 38-39; MI855 rifled 6: Springfield rifled 9. 16. 17 rifles: Enfield 8. 10. 13. 16. 22. 38; Sharp« 16 Wilson's Creek. battle of 6

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