Legion Condor Red Beret

Capitán, Nationalist tank companies. Illustration by Embleton after Bueno. Black beret with white death's-head: dark-brown overall with death's-head repeated on right and silver rank stars on black 'biscuit' on left breast; brown belt and holster. For further comments on Nationalist tank uniforms, see description of colour plate £4.

shows a red crab motif painted on the helmet and sewn on the blouse, and identifies the soldier as a Galician volunteer. WTiether the crab motif was common among men from this region is not known.

El Staff captain, Division 'Littorio', Italian Volunteer Corps, 1937

The first Italian volunteers were from the MVSN—'Blackshirt' — militias, and served in the Foreign Legion. As more arrived they formed their own units, or Banderas. By 1937 an autonomous

Black Shirt Militia Uniforms

Group of Nationalist officers of the 5th Navarrese Division photographed after the capture of Tarragona early in 1939. Note die mixture of uniform items and insignia; the short cazadora jacket is worn by several of these officers, and branch badges can be seen on both the collars and the berets. Most wear berets, presumably the red Carlist type, with rank stars. In April 1937 the Falangist and J.O.N.S. militias were amalgamated by Franco, new units wearing the red beret and blue shirt in combination. These officers are identified as belonging to the 1* Bandera de F.E.T. y de las J.O.N.S. de Navarra'—the usual style of title for units of the new combined militia. The Alferez on the left wears a pas a m on tan a and a leather jacket. Note both Italian and German steel helmets in use. (Robert Hunt)

Group of Nationalist officers of the 5th Navarrese Division photographed after the capture of Tarragona early in 1939. Note die mixture of uniform items and insignia; the short cazadora jacket is worn by several of these officers, and branch badges can be seen on both the collars and the berets. Most wear berets, presumably the red Carlist type, with rank stars. In April 1937 the Falangist and J.O.N.S. militias were amalgamated by Franco, new units wearing the red beret and blue shirt in combination. These officers are identified as belonging to the 1* Bandera de F.E.T. y de las J.O.N.S. de Navarra'—the usual style of title for units of the new combined militia. The Alferez on the left wears a pas a m on tan a and a leather jacket. Note both Italian and German steel helmets in use. (Robert Hunt)

corps was in existence: the Cuerpo de Tropas Voluntarias, CTV. It was made up of four weak divisions—actually, of brigade strength—and an autonomous combat group. The 'Dio lo vuole', 'Fiamme .Mere', and 'Penne Mere' divisions and the group (later, division) 'XXIII di Marzo' were manned by Blackshirts, and the 'Voluntarii Littorio' divsion by Italian Army personnel. In 1938 the last two formations were amalgamated into a mixed MVSN-Army division named 'Littorio d'Assalto'.

This figure is taken exactly from Bueno. The cap is the Italian bustina of officer quality and summer weight, with the three gold stars of this rank on the front flap. The jacket is the sahariana, which first became popular among Italian officers in Ethiopia, and spread to virtually every army which they fought with or against. The staff status is indicated by the white collar points edged gold. Rank stars appear on the left breast, and the divisional insignia on the left sleeve. The breeches and boots are normal Italian Army issue. Bueno illustrates a great diversity of Italian, Spanish, winter, and summer uniform items worn by Italian officers in various combinations. The Sam Browne supports the small Beretta holster.

E2 Volunteer, Division 'XXIII di Marzo', CTV, summer 1937

This private of the Blackshirt infantry volunteers is exactly as in Bueno. He wears what is effectively the Italian Army's tropical uniform, with minor distinctions. The Italian Mi933 helmet increasingly replaced the Adrian model worn at the beginning of Italian intervention. The shirt is peculiar to the CTV—a light grey-green pullover type with a zipped neck. The double black 'flames' and silver fasces of the MVSN appear on each collar point, and the divisional insignia on the left sleeve. Leather equipment, of the unique Italian design involving a loop of strap round the neck to support frontal belt pouches, is in grey-green, and the rifle is the 1891 Mannlicher Carcano.

Ej Leutnant, Legion Condor tank companies, in vehicle overalls

Bueno illustrates this rather exotic outfit, of mixed German/Spanish origin. The dark bluegorillo cap is piped in Spanish fashion in German Panzer pink branch colour, with gold rank stars but no tassel. The mono or overall has the ranking repeated on a pink 'biscuit' on the left breast, and is worn with German light khaki shirt, black marching boots, and brown field service belt.

E4 Alférez, Spanish Foreign Legion tank companies, 1938-39

The tank commander, who is taken from a similar figure by Bueno, wears a black beret with single gold rank star; a cazadora blouse in the Tercio's grey-green, with rank star on a black galleta; and black leather equipment. Bueno shows a full-length figure wearing these with flared grey-green breeches and high-lacing black boots with buckled gaiter-flaps at the top, high on the calf. The Spanish tank troops' badge seems to have been worn on the right breast by some tank officers of both sides. It was a silhouette of a stylised Renault tank, facing left; an example on a Republican officer's shirt in the Imperial War Museum is embroidered in gold and black thread on a pale khaki ground, but Bueno states that Nationalist personnel wore the device in silver metal. An unofficial variation was apparently worn by some Legion and other Nationalist tank officers and NCOs, on the beret and/or on the right breast: a skull and crossbones badge in silver or white. Nationalist Army tank companies seem to have displayed great variety in vehicle uniforms. Alono overalls appeared in dark blue, light khaki or dark brown: the black beret was common, and the black galleta was standard.

The tank itself is taken from a photograph. It is a German Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf.A, finished in the dark Panzer grey and earth brown shadow camouflage employed in the German Army for a time during the mid-1930s. The white '513' is a vehicle number; the red and yellow tricolour flash, carried on the front plate and on the turret rear, is the Nationalist recognition marking. The halved red and white diamond is a tactical marking of some kind; halved circles were also recorded. The white insignia next to the driver's hatch is the badge of the Tercio tank companies, the familiar crossed musket, crossbow and halberd.

Ej Unterojjizier, Legion Condor tank companies This figure is taken partly from Bueno and partly from a photograph. The service uniform of the Legion Condor-was this khaki tunic and trousers, light khaki shirt, and black leather equipment. The tank companies wore a black Spanish beret. Officially the ranking was repeated on this, in the form of vertical gold bars on a Panzer pink backing, exactly like the horizontal presentation on the breast. Photos show silver metal beret badges—the Panzer skull and crossbones over a silver swastika. Officers' ranking was worn on the tunic either as individual stars with branch-colour backing, or on a galleta of branch colour in the Nationalist manner; stars appeared individually on the headgear.

Fi Anarchist militiaman, 1936 The popular militias which rose spontaneously at the outbreak of the war owed their inspiration to numerous political and trade union organisations. Their clothing was civilian and their arms and equipment were whatever they could lay their hands on. The almost universal garment was the mono, the dungaree overall which became the trademark of the workers in arms. It appeared in numerous varieties of cut and colour, but dark blue was predominant. This anarchist wears the halved black and red scarf of the FAI—Federación Anarquista Ibérica. He has acquired a set of infantry equipment and a 'Short 1916' Mauser rifle. (Composite figure, after Bueno.)

F2 Cabo, Guardias de Asalto, 193J Large numbers of security police sided with tin-Republic, and played an active role during linearly periods of confusion when they were one of the few sources of trained and armed men. They also played an important part in the internal fighting against the anarchists in Barcelona. Pro bably because of the ambivalent feelings of many pro-Republican groups about uniformed security policemen, the Asaltos seem to have abandoned their dark blue service dress early on, and to have adopted the light blue-grey mono illustrated. A figure by Bueno, which we follow closely here, retains his dark blue peaked cap with the silver badge of the corps—a mural crown above an ornate escutcheon charged 'GS'—with white piping, black peak and strap, and the red chevron of corporal's rank, which is repeated on the breast. He wears the outmoded leather equipment often seen among troops from Morocco, and carries a 'Short 1916' Mauser.

Fj Miliciana, igj6

Women fought alongside men in the popular militias, and our figure represents one of the hundreds of Madrid factory-girls who took their places at the barricades. She wears the ubiquitous mono, adorned with roughly-stitched initials indicating her particular affiliation: UHP, UGT, CNT, PCE, POUM and FAI were all frequently-seen variations, on home-made insignia and in wall-slogans. The espadrilles are typical. The cap is an Army gorillo modified in a common way: the red piping and tassel are removed, the points pushed inwards and sewn across to give a rounder top line, and a red star is roughly stitched to the front. Her weapon and equipment are of cavalry origin: the 1895 carbine, and the belt with single front pouch and silver buckle-plate were standard issue to that branch.

G1 General Miaja, service dress Uniformity was even less common in the Republican Army than in the Nationalist, but this figure, after Norman, shows Miaja in normal service uniform for a general. Minor details such as pockets, the use of breeches or trousers, and so forth, naturally varied. The khaki cap bears the red star above the special generals' cap badge in gold— a crowned escutcheon flanked by scrolled pillars. The peak bore gold braid of varying widths for field officers and generals. The tunic collar bears the generals' crossed baton and sword. On the sleeves above the cuff are two types of ranking. From October 1936 to February 1937, and after October 1938, all grades of general in the Republican Army were amalgamated into a single rank—general. The insignia was as shown: three red stars around

Legi Espa Ola 1936
February 1939—footsore and burdened with salvaged kit, Republican soldiers reach the border town of Le Perthus in their retreat from the victorious Nationalists. (Keystone)

the crossed baton and sword. The actual level of command was indicated by the three-pointed stars below this; in this case, the four of an army commander. This separation of rank and function stemmed from the irregular militia backgrounds of some senior commanders; non-regular officers were not allowed to rise above lieutenant-colonel in rank, but some natural talents of this rank in fact commanded divisions and corps. One three-point star indicated command of a brigade, two a division, three a corps and four an army.

G2 Teniente Coronel Vladimir Copie, commanding XVth

International Brigade This figure, after Norman and various photographs, is typical of the campaign dress of Republican officers. The khaki peaked cap has the narrow gold peak braid of a field officer; the Republic's red star trimmed gold; and the infantry-branch badge flanked by the two thick horizontal stripes of his rank. Various privately acquired leather jackets and coats were much in evidence, and on every type of coat, jacket and blouse apart from the service dress tunic the ranking was worn on a breast patch, usually of khaki cloth. The red star appeared on this above the ranking, and below these, where appropriate, three-pointed 'command stars'—here, the single star of a brigade commander. Choice and arrangement of such accessories as boots, belts and sidearms was a matter for the individual in the Republican Army. Political commissars wore a red star in a red circle above horizontal red bars indicating grade (one for company commissar, two for battalion commissar, etc.) on cap and breast.

Cabo, infantry, service dress A composite figure based on the differing interpretations by Norman and Bueno of a surviving colour plate believed to show the official uniform authorized in October 1936. To what extent this was actually issued is unclear; parts were observed, but it is unlikely that the whole outfit was supplied in significant numbers. The cap is a khaki cloth version of the pasamontana, which was a popular Republican headgear. Its classic version was a wool balaclava with a peak, which could be worn rolled into a sort of peaked cap-comforter of the outline illustrated here. Bueno shows it in its cloth form with a rank chevron, a branch badge, and a brown chinstrap; Norman shows it without badge or strap. The tunic is shown here exactly after Norman; Bueno shows no skirt pockets, and with the buttoned cuff tab at the bottom edge of the sleeve. Both show the laced and buckled boots with ankle-flaps, and the straight trousers. Standard belt and pouches are worn with an infantry buckle-plate, but in this case without the shoulder-braces. The weapon is the 'Mexicanski', the most common rifle among many different types acquired by the Republic; it is a Russian Moisin-Nagant supplied via Mexico. Note the archaic socket bayonet, worn fixed at all times but sometimes reversed.

In the background is the Russian T-26 tank, most numerous of the types used by the Republic, and most effective on either side; the Nationalists offered large bounties for captured ones, and formed whole companies of them. The colour scheme is from a photo: basic Soviet forest-green with a drab brown streak-pattern over the upper hull and turret, the streaks edged with an indeterminate light shade. Turret markings in the Republican tank companies were restrained, seldom going beyond a simple number. The commander wears the typical nondescript clothing of most Republican personnel. His shirt, with tank badge on the right breast (see under E4) and rank patch on the left, is taken from one in the Imperial War Museum. A khaki beret was very widely worn in the Republican Army, and not infrequently in the Nationalist forces as well.

Hi Infantryman, winter campaign dress A composite figure assembled from many typical features, after Norman and Bueno. One can only generalize when discussing Republican combat troops, whose equipment came from many different Spanish and overseas sources, and who never achieved any real uniformity of clothing.

The headgear is the woollen pasamontana, pulled down to protect the face. The khaki greatcoat was

Nationalist ranking on tunic cuffs.

(A) General de Brigada

(B) Coronel

Left: the 'detente' or Sacred Heart emblem; details varied but this presentation is typical. Black backing, red and yellow riband, red patch with scalloped edges, yellow vertical centre stripe, red heart and cross with details trimmed black. Right: the red yoke-and-arrows device of the Falange Española.

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