much more common on the Republican than the Nationalist side, which seems to have favoured the capote-manta. Republican stocks came from many sources, and many were of French origin. In the absence of coats, rough ponchos or capote-mantas were made from blankets or canvas. Khaki trousers or corduroys were worn either loose, or with puttees, with ankle- or high-laced boots, or even with sandals. Rolled blankets of civilian origin were common. Standard infantry equipment is worn here, with two noteworthy additions. The tin plate slung from the belt was very common in the Republic, and served as a mess-tin. The grey or khaki Adrian helmet was imported from France in large numbers at the beginning of the war and was by far the most common helmet used by the Republic—although helmets were by no means a universal issue at all. Some Spanish helmets were used towards the end, but most seem to have been captured from Nationalist stocks. Sometimes a red star was painted on the front.
Hs Brigada, infantry, campaign dress The khaki beret was widely worn; here it bears a typical rank patch, with the two red bars below a red star of the senior NCO rank. (The cabo wore the chevron shown in G3, the sargento a red star above a single red bar.) This is repeated on a chest patch on the khaki cazadora, which in various slightly differing forms was the commonest type of jacket in the Republican Army; it appeared in cloth of many shades, in leather, with zips and plastic or leather buttons, with or without branch insignia on the collar, and in various civilian materials and patterns. Trousers were as heterogeneous; cloth of khaki or brown shades, flared or straight in cut, of corduroy, of light striped ticking—all were to be seen in the ranks. The high-laced boots were common, as stated earlier. Shirts and sweaters of every colour and type were worn indiscriminately. Many old French Army uniforms were acquired and worn complete or in part. The mono never entirely disappeared, and was worn in various light grey, green and khaki shades. A floppy khaki cotton sun-hat of army origin was seen on both sides during summer fighting. The oval metal canteen carried on this NCO's belt was sometimes, but not often observed covered in khaki felt. The weapon is interesting; never a regular issue, it was occasionally seen in the hands of junior leaders or security forces. It is the Astra Model 902, a 7.63mm selective-fire copy of the 1932 Mauser 'broom-handle' pistol, with a wooden holster-stock. The fixed magazine required an extra cut-out in the rear face of the holster-stock, covered with a leather stall. (Composite figure, after Norman.)
Hrj Capitán, Ejército Nacionalista Vasco, campaign dress The 'gudaris' or Basque soldiers who supported the Republic served in their own autonomous units; they were an important source of spirited manpower, numbering some 25,000 in November 1936. Uniforms were minimal, but the common feature was the black Basque beret. Ranking generally followed Nationalist Army practice, with officers' stars worn, as here, on beret and breast, and NCO's distinctions similar to the pointed patches worn by Nationalists. The leather jacket was very common among Basque officers. Trousers of white and grey or blue ticking were apparently much in evidence in Basque units. (After Bueno.)
H4 Soldado, Grupo de Regulares de Alhucemas no. 5, winter campaign dress In winter the Moorish troops of the Nationalist Army were usually issued a cazadora in greenish khaki. The baggy sand-coloured trousers, khaki puttees and white canvas boots seem to have been retained, according to Bueno. Overgarments varied, but the chilaba or native cape-coat was not uncommon. Bueno shows some Moors retaining the tarbuch, others in woollen pasamontañas. This figure is from Bueno; note the red cord decoration on the loose, hooded chilaba. This cording extended round of the split at elbow level which allowed free the edge of the hood, down the front, down the movement. It also edged the patch bearing the unit outside of the loose sleeves, and round the edges number and crescent in white.
Ai Letarbuch et le candora étaient souvent portés par les officiers espagnols en campagne. Le tarbuch a l'attribut de l'arme de service au-dessus de l'étoile unique de ce rang commissioné subalterne; l'étoile figure aussi sur là poitrine. Pistolet Astra. Aa Sur la casquette vous voyez l'attribut de l'arme de service au-dessus des étoiles de ce rang, les étoiles portées aussi sur la poitrine. La couleur des insignes sur la poitrine changeaient selon l'unité,— voyez aussi A3. La cape bleu vif d'officier est enroulée sur la selle et les insignes du Corps de l'Armée du Maroque se portent sur la manche gauche. A3 Les cinq grupos d'avant-guerre s'identifiaient par les couleurs rouge (1), bleu (2), vert (3), bleu foncé (4), et rouge foncé (5) ; encore cinq grupos se formaient pendant la guerre et cette série de couleurs cessa de constituer un moyen sûr d'identification. Observez le fanion d'un Tabor Grupo No. 3, et la grenade Lafitte faisant partie de l'équipment du soldat. 1916 Fusil Mauser. A4 Tenue de service d'ordonnance des officiers républicains avec l'attribut de l'arme de service porté sur le col et sur le bandeau, et les galons de rang avec l'étoile rouge sur la casquette et sur la manche.
Bi Tenue de service d'ordonnance; passepoil rouge sur la casquette identifie l'infanterie; observez l'attribut de rang sur la casquette. Fusil Mauser—porté par toutes les trois figures sur cette planche. B2 Au début la milice falangiste portail les chemises bleus, mais en 1937 le kaki avec détails en bleu les remplaça. L'attribut du Falange se porte sur la poitrine à gauche et les chevrons blancs à la casquette et à la manche indiquent un soldat du front. B3 D'habitude ces milices carlistes s'habillaient en civil et ne portaient qu'un beret rouge comme marque d'identification. Ce soldat est en tenue complète, y inclus la chemise cazadora que l'on portait souvent en campagne au lieu de la tunique plus longue. A la poitrine se voit l'attribut du Coeur Sacré au-dessus de la Croix de Bourgogne, celui-ci étant l'attribut de la cause carliste. L'attribut de manche est celui du Corps de l'Armée de Navarre. Dans le fond le fanion régimental de l'Infanterie Nationale, Régiment No. 22. 'San Marcial'.
LINCOLN BATTALION t
Examples of flags and guidons carried during the war. (A) Typical standard of a Republican brigade, the 124th Mixed Brigade of the 27th Division. Red over yellow over purple stripes. White lettering. Central motif: white columns with white ribands bearing black 'PLUS ULTRA', gold capitals and bases, gold crown with red interior, green foliate sprays. First quarter of shield red with gold tower, second white with red lion, third red with gold 'chained' shield device, fourth yellow with red stripes; small pointed area at bottom centre, white. (B) Flag of machine-gun company of American 'Lincoln' Battalion, XVth International Brigade: yellow on dark blue, yellow fringe. (C) Guidon of a tabor of Moroccan regular cavalry: light blue with red sal tire, white number, white crescent and lances. (D) Standard of a tabor of Moroccan regular infantry: yellow, black hand, white crescent, number outlined black. (E) Flag of the Euzkadi—the Basque Republican units: red, white cross, green saltire.
1 Native Alférez, Tiradores de Ifni, campaign dress
2 Capitán, Moroccan Regular Infantry, summer service dress
3 Soldado, Grupo de Regulares de Ceuta no. 3, summer campaign dress
4 Capitán, infantry, service dress
Was this article helpful?