International Units

Infantryman, Chinese Battalion, 1') 18-20 hinese 'internationalist' soldiers wore the same uni-i mi as most Red Army troops a peaked cap, khaki 'ton gymnasterka and sharovary breeches; but they .re always instantly recognisable, since Russian cloth-was far too big for them. The Chinese had a spe-1 value to the Bolsheviks: industrious, efficient and ddom able to understand Russian, they were mployed by the Cheka for the arrest and execution of ti-Soviet elements.

This Chinese soldier's equipment consists of canvas irtridge pouches and a kolotnka, a primitive canvas iversack that was in use throughout the Red Armv.

II inter anil summer budenovka hats made according to I'rikaz 322 of 31 January l')22. The winter budenovka is of dark grey cloth, while the summer version is of khaki cotton, Both were officially to have metal stars pinned over doth stars, hut this was rarely complied with. The additional peak at the hack of the summer budenovka, led to it being called the Zdravstv uy-proshay or 'Hello-goodbye'. (Collection of Anton Shalito and llya Savchenkov)

The lapti boots are of common Red Army issue, made of a single piece of hard leather, laced with rawhide strips; these are worn over canvas ohmotki or puttees, sometimes referred to as hinty (bandages). The weapons are a Lee Enfield Mark III rifle - 'borrowed' from some unfortunate British soldier and a Russian hand-grenade.

Sleeve patches as authorised by I'rikaz 322 of 31 January 1922. Due to shortages oj dyed doth they were officially made of material identical to that of the tunic. The stars, piping and rank devices were in branch-of-service colour. From left: komvzvoda (platoon commander) and zamkomvzvoda (deputy platoon commander). (Collection of Anton Shalito and llya Savchenkov)

C2: Hungarian Hussar, Detached International Cavalry Division, 1918-20

Thousands of Hungarian POWs found themselves drawn into the Civil War, mainly on the Red side, and in 1918 several Hungarian formations were organised in the Ukraine. The unit to which this hussar belongs was formed by Istvan Ilorvat in kie\, after a warehouse containing the uniforms and equipment of the 1st Austrian Hussar Regiment was captured by the Red Army.

Initially the unit had four squadrons: three manned by I lungarians and one (for scouting purposes) manned by Russians and Ukrainians. Also attached to it were two light artillery batteries, a machine-gun platoon, and signals and sapper detachments. Initially no horses were to hand, although saddles were available in abundance; and in the first parades the hussars marched on foot carrying the saddles on their backs. A month later 180 carthorses were requisitioned locally. Soon afterwards, four additional squadrons were formed of Hungarians drafted from other Red cavalry units. An eighth foreign squadron was formed of Germans and Austrians under an Austrian officer, Franz Morgauer.

Kazan City 1918

Evolution of cavalry sleeve badges from 1918 to l')22. The cavalry badge developed from a non-regulation badge depicting a horse's head within a horseshoe. This proved highly popular, and it took a great deal of official effort to replace it with the regulation 1922 badge, which dispensed with the horse's head.

In 1920 the Hungarians were demobilised under an arrangement with the I lungarian government, and most returned home. Those who preferred to sta> on in Russia joined the International Cavalry Divizion, commanded by Sandor Tede, which was posted to the city of Kazan to carry out patrol service.

The International Cavalry Drcizions uniform was an odd combination ol Russian and Hungarian: all cavalrymen had red Hungarian side-caps, Russian gyrn-nasterkas, greatcoats and cavalry jackboots. I lungarian squadrons wore red hussar breeches, while others had Russian khaki sharovary. Infantry units had Russian peaked caps and puttees and ordinary boots.

This Red Hungarian Hussar (called 'Red' not so much because he fought for the Bolsheviks, but rather after the red cap and breeches) has on his cap a red star badge covering the old Austrian pompon (with Emperor Franz-Josef I's monogram). His gymnasterka has faded in the hot Ukrainian sun. The collar of an undershirt is turned over the collar of the gymnasterka. The leather equipment is Hungarian, as are the weapons a 1907 Rot-Stcyr automatic pistol and an 1869 cavalrv sabre.

C3: Infantryman, Rah in's Finnish Red Guard Detachment. 1918-19

After the signing of the Brest-Eitovsk Treaty, on 5 March 1918, Poland, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Georgia and Finland gained independence from Russia. Finns of communist persuasion more than 28,000 in number were forced to move to Soviet Russia, and some of them joined the Red Army in the hope of restoring Soviet rule in Finland. These volunteers formed a number of units and took part in battles on the Northern and North-western Fronts. The .ird Finnish Communist Regiment helped to protect Petrograd from the Germans and from Yudenich's White Army; the 6th Finnish Rifle Regiment served in Karelia in 1919; and the 480th Finnish Rifle Regiment even fought in Poland in 1920. Other, more exotic Finnish units included the Finnish Ski Battalion, whict made up part of the Petrograd Garrison, and cadetsl from the Finnish Red Commanders' Infantry School who took part in the suppression of the Kronstadt revolt.

This rifleman is dressed in the Russian infant! greatcoat and boots. He wears his canvas cartridge be on the waist, rather than across the chest as normal worn by Russians. His is armed with a German Mauser M.1898 rifle and a German infantry sword bayonet. The main detail that distinguished the I'inr-f'rom the Russians was the traditional Finnish peaki cloth cap, which was worn with the inevitable red star

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