The Plates

A: US MARINES AT FIRST MANASSAS (BULL RUN), JULY 21, 1861

Major John G.Reynolds rallies his Marine battalion at the crossroads near Henry Hill during the latter stages of the battle. Despite the heat the Marines wore full uniforms and carried their Army-issue canteens, although they had dropped off their gray blanket rolls and haversacks at the Sudley Road Church. Major Reynolds (right) wears the officer's fatigue cap with black ribbed silk braid, and double-breasted undress coat with gold shoulder knots. His weapons are a .36 caliber Navy Colt revolver and a brass-hilted M1850 Marine officer's sword; the biack leather sword belt is fastened by an M1851 eagle-wreath plate. The enlisted men wear seven-button undress coats with thin scarlet cord inserted into the lower collar seam. They are armed with .69 caliber M1842 smoothbore muskets with black leather slings. Their accoutrements are whitened buff leather cross belts and waist beit, supporting a black leather cartridge box and cap pouch. They all wear warm weather white linen trousers. See Plate H for further details.

B: US MARINES ON BLOCKADE DUTY

A white linen summer undress uniform (B1) was prescribed for officers on shipboard in warm weather. Patterned after the dark blue undress uniform, this consisted of a double-breasted frock coat with eight buttons in each row, with rank indicated by gold shoulder knots. Headgear consisted of a flat-crowned straw hat with a black band. A crimson waist sash was always worn with this uniform when on duty.

Officers were also permitted to wear a single-breasted fatigue jacket fastened by 16 small Marine buttons (B2). The cuff trim varied in design, but was officially "point up, six inches deep." This officer wears the fatigue cap with black ribbed silk braid decoration, and sky-blue kersey trousers with 3/|6in scarlet cord let into the outside seams.

The sergeant (B3) wears the 1859 pattern dark indigo blue flannel fatigue "sack" prescribed for enlisted men on shipboard. This pullover garment has a half-length chest opening fastened with four small buttons. Rank is indicated by three yellow worsted chevrons edged with scarlet.

The Marine private (B4) wears warm weather undress: the white linen trousers and the dark blue single-breasted, seven-button coat, piped scarlet at the lower collar seam, are as Plate A, but his fatigue cap has a white linen cover. He holds an M1861 Springfield rifle musket; his single cross belt supports his cartridge pouch while the waist belt carries both his cap pouch and the black leather bayonet scabbard in a whitened leather frog.

C: US MARINES IN THE BOAT ATTACK ON FORT SUMTER, SEPTEMBER 8, 1863

The part played by the Marines in the mishandled and unsuccessful landing assault against the fort in Charleston Harbor, SC, is described in the body text. The plate gives an impression of the moment when the boatload of volunteers under US Marine Lt Robert L.Meade got ashore. Confederate hand grenades and fiery turpentine balls, designed to illuminate the target, rain down from the parapet above as the Marines and sailors clamber up a slope of debris. The Marines wear winter undress uniforms; in

George Croghan

OPPOSITE Lt George Croghan Reid, LISMC, wears a fatigue jacket styled after that prescribed for officers in 1859, although his garment appears to have even more than the regulation 16 small Marine buttons, and the "point up" gold lace sleeve trim is much longer than the regulation 6 inches. Compare with Plate B2. (National Archives photo 127-N-517426)

RIGHT Major & Paymaster William W.Russeli, USMC, took part in the capture of John Brown in October 1859. He wears the full dress uniform prescribed for field officers, with four gold loops on each cuff flap. Note at right his chapeau complete with red feather plume - see Plate D1. (Courtesy David M.Sullivan)

preparation for the attack their belts were ordered to be stained black to make them less conspicuous, and they have removed the slings from their rifle muskets.

D: US MARINE FULL DRESS, WASHINGTON NAVY YARD

The field officer (D1) wears the full dress prescribed for a lieutenant-colonel of the Marines. His double-breasted frock coat has eight buttons in each row. Rank is indicated by a silver embroidered leaf on his epaulette straps, two loops of half-inch gold lace on either side of his standing collar, and four loops on each cuff flap. Both collar and cuff flaps are edged with scarlet trim. His dark blue trousers with scarlet welt are those prescribed for staff officers and officers "not serving in line with troops." He wears the dark blue chapeau with a gold and scarlet flat tassel at each end and a plume of red cock or vulture feathers. His white glazed leather sword belt is fastened over his crimson sash by an 1861 pattern eagle plate; suspended from it is an M1850 Marine officer's sword with gold lace knot.

The musician (D2) wears a scarlet coat (dyed with cochineal) with white edging trim on the collar and cuff flaps; his epaulette crescents and scale straps are yellow metal, with yellow worsted fringing. His uniform cap is of black felt with top, vizor, and bands of glazed black leather. The plate is the US shield within a half-wreath, with white metal "M" against a red background set within the curl of the bugle horn; the red pompon rises from a brass mount. His sky-blue trousers have 3/,6in scarlet seam stripes. His waist belt has a plain rectangular plate, and his white webbing drum sling has a brass drumstick carriage. His drum is decorated with the US eagle and shield, stars and rays, and a red ribbon bearing the inscription "U.S. MARINES".

The sergeant-major (D3) wears the dark blue, double-breasted frock coat with seven buttons in each row. Rank is indicated by three gold lace loops on each cuff flap, plus three yellow silk lace chevrons and arcs, on scarlet backing. He also wears a red worsted waist sash underneath his white belt, which supports a brass-hilted M1850 Marine NCO sword. Both the sergeant-major and the musician wear black leather neck stocks.

E: CS MARINES, PENSACOLA, 1861

The first recruits for the Confederate States Marine Corps based at Pensacola, Florida, were issued clothing seized from US naval stores at the Warrington and Gosport navy yards. (E1) is a private of Company A in May 1861; he wears a dark

Usmc White Leather

blue US Navy cap minus its black ribbon, a gray flannel overshirt, white "cottonade pantaloons," and a large bow tie of civilian origin. His ex-US Marine Corps accoutrements consist of a whitened leather waist belt with plain plate, black cap pouch and frogged bayonet scabbard, and a white leather shoulder belt for the black cartridge box. His canteen and white linen haversack are ex-US Army items.

The private of Co C wears the fatigue uniform issued in July 1861 (E2). This consists of a short dark blue woolen 9-button fatigue or undress jacket with plain collar and cuffs, blue "satinet" pants, and dark blue uniform cap. His black leather waist belt and cartridge box belt are locally made, the former with a brass frame buckle. Both Marines have "old Model" 1816 flintlock smoothbore muskets converted to percussion, with leather slings attached.

(E3) is an officer of Co A, wearing a dark blue double-breasted satinet coat. Based on clothing worn by 2nd Lt F.H.Cameron (see page 31), it was adapted for CS Marine service from his US Coast Survey uniform, with the addition of Austrian sieeve knots. He carries an M1850 foot officer's sword suspended from a black leather sword belt.

Marine Crimson Gold Dress Belt

Pte William A.Krise, USMC, wears full dress uniform, which includes epaulettes consisting of a scale strap and crescent of yellow metal with yellow worsted fringing, the latter removable to ease the cleaning of the metal parts. In this image the two yellow loops on the collar and the cuff flaps are apparent. (USAMHI)

F: CS MARINES AT DREWRY'S BLUFF, MAY 15, 1862

As described in the body text, a flotilla of Federal ironclads probing up the James River towards Richmond, Va, came under heavy sniping fire from a two-company battalion of Confederate Marines commanded by Capt John D.Simms, placed in rifle pits along the bank at Drewry's Bluff. The captain (F1) wears a blue-gray undress frock coat with dark blue facings on collar and cuffs. Rank is indicated by three collar bars, shoulder knots, and double-braid sleeve knots. His dark blue kepi is trimmed on top with a gold braid quatrefoil, and his gray trousers have Navy blue seam stripes. He holds a light artillery saber, and his black leather sword belt is fastened by a British Army-style snake clasp.

The sergeant (F2) is dressed in a gray Army-style frock coat fastened by a singie row of nine buttons, with three inverted Navy blue chevrons sewn straight on to the upper sleeves. He is armed with a three-band Enfield rifle musket with triangular bayonet, and his accoutrements consist of standard British Army snake-cfasp belt of black leather, 1861 pattern "ball bag" and bayonet scabbard. He also carries a gray-covered "bull's-eye" tin canteen and a black oilskin haversack.

Other enlisted men (F3) wear a mixture of dark blue satinet and gray frock coats, and carry the same British weapon and accoutrements as their NCO.

G: CS MARINES IN THE CAPTURE OF THE USS UNDERWRITER, FEBRUARY 2, 1864

As described in the body text, 25 Marines provided covering fire and part of the naval boat party which captured this side-wheel gunboat anchored in the Neuse River near New

Csmc Uniforms

In this second portrait Lt John L.Rapier, CSMC, appears to be wearing the gray single-breasted service coat adopted by the Corps in 1863, but without shoulder knots. (Courtesy Adelaide Trigg)

The undress frock coat, trousers and waist sash worn by Lt Henry L.Graves, CSMC, in 1864 survive today in the collection of the Atlanta History Center. The coat is bluish-gray with black edging on the cuffs, and has two rows of pre-war IISMC buttons made by A.N.Horstmann & Allen, carrying an eagle and fouled anchor surmounted by a semicircle of 13 stars. The shoulder knots are gold on a scarlet ground. The trousers are sky-blue with a narrow black welt down the outer seams, while the sash is crimson. (Atlanta History Center)

In this second portrait Lt John L.Rapier, CSMC, appears to be wearing the gray single-breasted service coat adopted by the Corps in 1863, but without shoulder knots. (Courtesy Adelaide Trigg)

Berne, North Carolina. By the time of this action they probably wore the new uniform issued to the Corps in January 1864, which included a single-breasted, seven-button frock coat of "Blue-Jean cloth" with Navy blue trim around the upper collar edge, and gray trousers. The corporal (right) has two Navy blue chevrons on each upper arm and half-inch Navy blue trouser seam stripes. The gray kepis have a Navy blue branch-of-service band. They are armed with M1854 Austrian Lorenz rifle muskets, minus sSings, and have British-made black leather accoutrements.

H: MARINE INSIGNIA & EQUIPMENT

H1: US Marine Corps officer's full dress sword belt

H2: Modified M1850 foot officer's sword, adopted by US

Marine corps on June 3, 1861, as its NCO sword

H3l US Marine Corps flag - nationai pattern

H4: US Marine Corps officer's shoulder knot with lieutenant-

colonel's metal insignia

The undress frock coat, trousers and waist sash worn by Lt Henry L.Graves, CSMC, in 1864 survive today in the collection of the Atlanta History Center. The coat is bluish-gray with black edging on the cuffs, and has two rows of pre-war IISMC buttons made by A.N.Horstmann & Allen, carrying an eagle and fouled anchor surmounted by a semicircle of 13 stars. The shoulder knots are gold on a scarlet ground. The trousers are sky-blue with a narrow black welt down the outer seams, while the sash is crimson. (Atlanta History Center)

H5: US Marine Corps eagle-and-anchor button H6: CS Marine Corps "M" button

H7: US Marine Corps officers' embroidered fatigue cap ornament

H8: US Marine Corps enlisted men's metal fatigue cap ornament

H9: CS Marine Corps officers' sleeve braid: (a) lieutenant, (b) captain, (c) field officer

H10: CS Marine Corps officer's collar braid: (a) second lieutenant, (b) first lieutenant, (c) captain. Field officers wore one, two or three stars.

H11: US Marine Corps enlisted men's full dress shako, with (left) detail of plate

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