Of

cularly in the Swedish army, and many returned discipline as professional officers introduced the home once a native Scots army was formed. This habits they had picked up in the vicious European made it an unusually professional force; although wars. Worse than this from a Presbyterian point of the colonels and the captains of companies were view was the possibility of Independents of the Earl men of local standing but little experience, the of Manchester's Army corrupting 'our simple silly lieutenant-colonels and majors were usually all lads', professionals. Like many of his colleagues this professional wears a buff-coat and a gorget for protection; and the halberd he carries is an indication of his rank.

Cj2: Musketeer Gj : Musketeer

H: Battle: The New Model Army, Naseby 1645 This scene shows the closing stages of the Battle of Naseby as Parliament's New Model Army overran the last of the infantry of the King's Oxford Army. The campaigns of 1644 had shown that by combining several of its regional armies, Parliament

'A Representation from His Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax': another expression of the 'Desires of the Army', setting out their conditions for disbandment. By September 1647 both officers and men were united in their demands.

Scots infantry were distinguished by the 'hodden- could achieve a significant numerical advantage grey' coats they wore and their blue bonnets, so over the King's forces, but divided command and much so that at the siege of Carlisle'one died in ye internal rivalries prevented its exploitation. The towne, who wcreing a blue cap wych he had taken New Model Army shared the equipment and from ye Scotch at Stannix, was mistaken in ye last theoretical unit organisation of its predecessors but action at Denton House, received his death wound it had a unified command, strongly-recruited by Richard Grave, a Cavalier'. One soldier has put his 'Swedish feather', on the ground beside him; this was simply a short stake topped with a pike-head which was set in front of a line of musketeers as an additional defence against cavalry, and as the name suggests it was used in the Swedish army in which so many Scots served. The Scots are the only troops known to have been issued with these stakes during the Civil War, but it is uncertain whether they ever used them in action. Scots pikemen were not issued with armour. This may have been because of the influence of professional soldiers with experience of the European wars in which armour had largely been abandoned to achieve swifter marches, or it may simply have been an example of Scots economy.

'A Representation from His Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax': another expression of the 'Desires of the Army', setting out their conditions for disbandment. By September 1647 both officers and men were united in their demands.

Abandoned Armoured Train

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